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General Topics

Lesson 1 - History of teqball

Teqball is a football-based sport created in Hungary in 2012 by three football enthusiasts: Gábor Borsányi, a former professional football player, Viktor Huszár, a computer scientist and György Gattyán, a Hungarian businessman. Gábor Borsányi is the creative innovator of the sport who used to be playing football tennis on the concrete table tennis tables near the place he had lived. He and his friends found out that the game is excellent and enjoyable for football-lovers, but the sport equipment is not appropriate because the ball doesn’t bounce off the table. He thought the table should be bent to solve this issue.

During the year of 2000, Gábor used to work on the shore of the Hungarian Lake Balaton, where he met some footballers who played the same game he had played before. He wanted to join to challenge them. Finally, Gábor came out as the winner, so the dream of curving the table was reborn.

Couple of year later he met Viktor Huszár, a computer scientist and football-lover who fell in love with the idea immediately. They decided to create a plan and start working on the realisation of the idea. They reached out to György Gattyán, an international businessman who also liked it and joined Gábor and Viktor as the third founder of Teqball.

They spent some years experimenting what would be the ideal curve, length, and width of the table. Eventually, they released the first prototype of the Teq Table, called the Teq One, in 2014. The official presentation of the sport only happened two years after, on 18 of October in 2016, in Budapest, Hungary with the presence and active involvement of the Ballon d’Or, Champions League and World Cup Winner, Ronaldinho. He became one of the first ambassadors of teqball.

From this day, the sport has been evolving and under the leadership of the International Teqball Federation (FITEQ) it is conquering the world. There are more than 125 countries playing teqball and more than 115 countries having a National Teqball Federation officially recognised by FITEQ.

The main goals of the sport of teqball is to become a programme sport on the Olympic Games and to create a mass sport played in communities all over the world.

Lesson 2 - Teq Tables

After the release of Teq One in 2014, FITEQ continued to develop the sports equipment, making it accessible to a wider range of people. Therefore, it is important to review all the existing Teq tables and their attributes. Naturally, the width, length and height parameters are the same for all Teq tables, ensuring that any table can be used for practicing teqball.

Teq One

  • Teq One is the official “Class A – high-level” table which is used at FITEQ’s official tournaments
  • Indoor and outdoor: the table can be fixed to the ground
  • The plexi (net) is made of Poli(metil-metakrilat) – PMMA
  • The plexi is transparent
  • The playing area is made of HPL (High pressure laminate) (with a fine structured tabletop with matte finish)
  • The leg structure is made of steel which also has an anti-corrosive coating on
  • It weighs 147 kgs
  • It’s weather resistant

Teq Smart

  • Teq Smart is the official “Class B – professional-level” table which is used at national and club level tournaments
  • Indoor and outdoor: the table can be rolled on wheels so it’s portable
  • Easy opening/closing (with a safety lock): it can be used for individual practice
  • The plexi (net) is made of Poli(metil-metakrilat) – PMMA
  • The plexi is transparent
  • The playing area is made of HPL (High pressure laminate) (with a fine structured tabletop with matte finish)
  • The leg structure is made of steel which also has an anti-corrosive coating on
  • It weighs 168 kgs
  • It’s weather resistant

Teq Lite

  • It was released in 2019 during the 3rd World Championships
  • Teq Lite is the official “Class C – recreational-level” table which is used at amateur tournaments
  • Indoor and outdoor: the table can be rolled on wheels so it’s portable and easy to move
  • Easy opening/closing (with a safety lock): it can be used for individual practice
  • The plexi (net) is made of high density polyethylene
  • The plexi is black coloured
  • The playing area is made of fiberglass reinforced polyester
  • The leg structure is made of steel which also has an anti-corrosive coating on
  • It weighs 111 kgs, so this is the lightest table
  • It’s weather resistant
Teq X
  • It was released in 2021
  • Indoor and outdoor
  • Fixed structure – easy to assemble
  • The plexi (net) is made of high density polyethylene
  • The plexi is black coloured
  • The playing area is made of fiberglass reinforced polyester
  • The leg structure is made of steel which also has an anti-corrosive coating on
  • It’s weather resistant

Lesson 3/1 - FITEQ

FITEQ is the abbreviation of the International Teqball Federation, which is the governing body of the sports of teqball and para teqball.

FITEQ, as a non-profit organisation is responsible for the governance and management of teqball at the international level; the development and promotion of teqball globally; the codification of the official rules and regulations of teqball; supporting the establishment of National Federations; the education and development of athletes, coaches and technical officials; sanctioning national and international competitions and events; establishing and maintaining world-ranking statistics; and the governance, management and development of para teqball.

FITEQ was founded in March 2017 with Gábor Borsányi elected as first (and current) president, Viktor Huszár as vice-president (currently he is the Chairman of FITEQ), and György Gattyán as vice-president. Later on, they were joined by Marius Vizer Jr as the General Secretary of FITEQ and Matthew Curtain who leads the management team of the sport as Sport Director.

FITEQ is headquartered in Budapest, Hungary, in the country where the sport of teqball was invented.

Lesson 3/2 - FITEQ's recognitions

Only one year after its establishment, FITEQ was recognised by the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) in August 2018. This meant that teqball was no longer a sport activity but became an officially recognised sport.

Another year passed and FITEQ was recognised by the Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa (ANOCA) in June 2019. Straight after the recognition, teqball became a demonstration sport at the 1st African Beach Games in 2019.

FITEQ has since been recognised by the Organisation of Sports Federations of Oceania (OSFO).

Another key achievement was when FITEQ was approved as full member of the Global Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF) in 2020. This recognition is a crucial step in becoming an International Olympic Committee (IOC) recognised sport, which is a requirement for all sports with aspirations to be on the Olympic Games programme.

FITEQ became a Signatory of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), which is an organisation co-funded by the IOC and governments around the world to lead the fight against doping in sport. FITEQ also has a long-term partnership with the International Testing Agency, to help ensure FITEQ promotes clean sport through robust testing and education for its athletes.

Lesson 3/3 - Events and Competitions

FITEQ’s current competition portfolio can be found on fiteq.org under the Events section.

The flagship competition in teqball is the Teqball World Championships:

In June 2017, the same year FITEQ was established, the 1st Teqball World Championships was organised in Budapest in two different categories: Singles and Doubles. There were 20 countries participating and also football stars, like Nwanko Kanu and William Gallas in attendance. The winner in singles was the Hungarian Adam Blazsovics, who beat Mate Szolga in the final. In doubles, Romania came out on top as Zsolt Lazar and Barna Szecsi beat the Hungarian duo of Balazs Imreh and Robert Szepessy.

So, the first singles World Champion is Adam Blazsovics from Hungary and in doubles, it’s Zsolt Lazar and Barna Szecsi from Romania.

One year later, in October 2018, FITEQ organised the 2nd World Championships in Reims, France with 42 different countries participating from all over the world. There were two categories: in singles, Barna Szecsi from Romania won the title against the Hungarian Arpad Sipos, while in doubles it was Bogdan Marojevic and Nikola Mitro representing Montenegro who won the gold medal against the Hungarian duo of Adam Blazsovics and Csaba Banyik.

In December 2019, Hungary hosted the 3rd World Championships, once again held in Budapest. There were teqball competitions in three categories: singles, doubles and mixed doubles for the first time.

The singles competition was won by Adam Blazsovics for the second time, as he beat Adrian Duszak from Poland in the final. The doubles competition was won by the Adam Blazsovics – Csaba Banyik duo, who defeated previous world champions Bogdan Marojevic and Nikola Mitro. The first mixed doubles champions were Natalia Guitler and Marcos Vieira from Brazil, who beat the Hungarian duo of Zsanett Janicsek and Csaba Banyik in the final.

Please find a short summary of the three teqball world championships below:

It can be observed that in 2017, 12 points were needed to win a set and in 2018-2019 it was extended to 20 points. After the World Championships in 2019, the rule was reset to 12 points and as per today these rules are in force.

There have been many other important competitions held by FITEQ, out of which it is important to highlight the following:

  • African Beach Teqball Cup (2019): This was the demonstration event of teqball during the 1st African Beach Games in Sal, Cape Verde. 14 African countries were represented, with the Cameroonian duo Hubert Noah and Gregory Tchami winning the doubles competition in the sand.
  • Asia-Pacific Teqball Beach Cup (2019): This beach event was held in Sanya, China with eight countries represented. The doubles team from Japan, Wase Akinori and Yajima Daisuke won the tournament beating Team Malaysia in the final.
  • Teqball Masters 2019: This competition was organised in two different categories: singles and doubles, and was hosted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. There were eight countries involved. In singles, Adrian Duszak won the competition representing Poland and in doubles it was the Adam Blazsovics – Csaba Banyik duo from Hungary who came out on top in the sand.

Teqball was officially added to the programme of the Asian Beach Games 2020 in Sanya, China as a medal sport, but the whole multisport competition was postponed due to the COVID Pandemic. Additionally, in 2023 FITEQ will be a medal sport at the European Games 2023 in Krakow, Poland.

For the most recent competition calendar and portfolio, please visit fiteq.org

Lesson 3/4 - Famous Teqers

As mentioned earlier, Ronaldinho was one of the first stars to officially represent teqball as an ambassador. However, more famous footballers have since stood up to support teqball, including William Gallas, Carles Puyol, Nuno Gomes, Simao Sabrosa, David Beckham and Luis Figo.

Apart from retired footballers, there are many active football clubs and players who own and use Teq tables as a supplementary training exercise:

  • Clubs:
    • Manchester United
    • FC Barcelona
    • PSG
    • Chelsea
    • Tottenham
  • National Teams:
    • Belgium
    • Brazil
    • Germany
  • Players:
    • Lionel Messi
    • Philippe Coutinho
    • Sadio Mane
    • Roberto Firmino
    • Neymar Jr.

Lesson 3/5 - FITEQ Education Programme

The FITEQ Education Programme defines the learning pathway for teqball athletes, referees, and coaches from an introduction to the new sport to a professional level. The programme includes all stages of the education affiliated with FITEQ or a National Federation (NF). Subject to meeting the requirements set forth in this guideline, all NFs and associated partners of FITEQ are eligible to organise the following referee and coach education courses:

• an equivalent course to the first (online) level of the FITEQ Education Programme (both in refereeing and coaching)

• FITEQ International Level Course(s)

The main objectives of the FITEQ Education Programme are:

• to provide a systematic, measurable and continuous pathway for all prospective referees, coaches and athletes that would like to go into the details of the sport of teqball;

• to increase the number of certified teqball community members;

• to ensure the professional development and continuous improvement of certified teqball referees and coaches (or other technical officials);

• to enhance the quality of the people that are already certified;

• to develop and promote teqball worldwide.

There are separate pathways for both referees and coaches:

Refereeing Pathway:

Coaching Pathway:

As it can be seen, the first levels (Level C and Level Intro) can be done online. These courses are open to anybody and free of charge. These can be undertaken via education.fiteq.org.

Level B and Level 1 courses are organised by the National Federations with the approval of FITEQ. Additionally, for these courses, an official FITEQ Presenter is required to deliver the course operationally.

The FITEQ Education Programme document includes all the relevant information about education pathways and courses. The most updated Education Programme document can be viewed and studied via education.fiteq.org in the Documents section.

Lesson 3/6 - Para Teqball

Guided by our belief that sport is for all, FITEQ aims to be as inclusive as possible to ensure all athletes can enjoy the world’s fastest growing sport. We want to embrace and spread the values that define parasport, notably determination, courage, inspiration, and equality. Regardless of age, gender or social background, everyone should have the same opportunity to access sport, whether it is playing recreationally or competing at an elite level.

Para teqball is a dynamic ball game that effectively develops players’ physical and cognitive skills and helps create an active and more balanced lifestyle. It inspires all players to reach their full potential, whatever level that might be.

As part of its ongoing effort to be as inclusive as possible, FITEQ is professionalising para teqball, to provide elite para teqball athletes the opportunity to compete in official FITEQ events.

We want to give everyone the chance to dream big and with the innovative and dynamic sports of para teqball, we can unveil the hidden talents of para teqball athletes all around the world!

Learn more about para teqball here.

Lesson 3/7 - Sport Integrity and Anti-Doping

Sport integrity

The word integrity means to be whole and undivided but also the quality of being honest with strong moral principles. In sport, this means the manifestation of the ethics and values which promote confidence in sports, including positive conduct by its members and community. Hence, the purpose of the sport integrity framework is to protect teqball against illegal and immoral activities.

The general discussion around sport integrity includes words like fairness, inclusivity, honesty, trust, values, ethics, morals, beliefs, respect and fairness. Traditionally, the sport integrity also includes subjects such as doping, match-fixing, corruption, or cheating.

However, there are countless examples of what is a violation of sport integrity. Thus, the best way to think about sport integrity, is to think about what behaviour or action may impact people’s positive experience of the sport or negatively impact the values of the sport. In other words, if you do not wish to be treated that way, also refrain from doing it. Yet, as sport integrity is more complex than that, it is important that at the very least, FITEQ members are informed about these issues.

Learn more about sport integrity here.


Anti-doping programs seek to maintain the integrity of sport in terms of respect for rules, other competitors, fair competition, a level playing field, and the value of clean sport to the world.

The spirit of sport is the celebration of the human spirit, body and mind. It is the essence of Olympism and is reflected in the values we find in and through sport, including:

• Health

• Ethics, fair play and honesty

• Athletes’ rights as set forth in the Code

• Excellence in performance

• Character and Education

• Fun and joy

• Teamwork

• Dedication and commitment

• Respect for rules and laws

• Respect for self and other Participants

• Courage

• Community and solidarity

The spirit of sport is expressed in how we play true. Teqball embodies these values – we believe in a clean and fair field of play, and doping stands in direct contradiction to what Teqball represents.

Our goal is to empower all Teqers to stay on top of their game – not just athletes, but coaches, administrators, medical personnel and all other members of the athlete entourage. We encourage everyone to take the time to review this section – get informed, get empowered!

Learn more about anti-doping here.

Lesson 3/8 - Club Development Programme

FITEQ provides opportunity for all sports entities and individuals to establish their own teqball clubs. For this, there are specific funds from FITEQ through the National Federations.

Learn more about the Club Development Programme here.

Lesson 4 - Social Media Policy

During FITEQ-organised events (competitions, seminars, training camps, etc.), FITEQ representatives have to follow the following guidelines regarding social media posts and activities. Be yourself and speak in the first person. In the meantime, always pay attention to the fact that you relate to FITEQ and the local National Federation. You are personally responsible for every social media post, interview, internal and external communication you are involved in. If you are involved in an inappropriate social media post, communication, etc., you must immediately report it to your supervisor at FITEQ. Therefore, always pay attention to the changing privacy policies on social media sites. Any third-party sponsorship or advice must be communicated with FITEQ. DOs:
●Respect the privacy of other human beings and your social media audience! ●Get your social media account verified on every platform wherever it is possible to eliminate any confusion! ●Avoid any negative dialogues in all instances! ●Always keep in mind that everything you write might or will be read by fans, referees, team officials, organisers and anybody else! ●Keep in mind that photos, videos and posts uploaded to a social media site might be downloaded and stored by a third party secretly! ●Use the official hashtags of the sport of teqball: #Teqball, #WorldIsCurved ●Tag the appropriate teqball (or FITEQ) social media page!
●Do not discuss any information provided during a teqball-related event! This includes information about teams, players, schedules, tactics, style of plays, decisions, security details or any other information. If you are unsure, do not post it! ●Do not post information that has not yet been announced officially on the internet by FITEQ or the National Federations. Example: “Can’t wait for the next event in Switzerland.” This might be particularly important when FITEQ may have obligations to media or sponsors for exclusive or priority information sharing. ●Do not post photos, videos or other material that might portray anybody (staff members, audience, officials, etc.) in a poor light, or that might reveal confidential information. This also refers to tagging locations (accommodation, venues, restaurants, etc.) and other people. Example: “The City Centre Restaurant under our hotel is amazing.” ●Do not post teqball-related photos where alcohol, drugs or any kind of crime/violence might be involved! ●Do not give advice or make comments on matches, team officials, referees, organisers, administration, rules, etc.! ●Do not give interviews (video, written, etc…) unless requested/permitted by the FITEQ supervisor! ●When unsure about a post, do not post it!
Benefits of social media for the FITEQ representatives:
●Immediate and useful information to the world in the form of photos, videos and writings
●Allow people to stay in the loop of the happenings
●Educate people through social media
●Engaging more people for participation in any event
●No geographical borders
●Other noble causes Risks of social media for the FITEQ representatives:
●Sharing private information unintentionally
●Risk of impersonation
●Misleading information, communication
●Risk of misinterpretation

TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE - General topics

In the following link, you can test your knowledge. Test type: mock test Attempts: 2 attempts allowed Time limit: 15 minutes Questions: 12 questions Pass mark: 85%

Coaching Topics

Lesson 1/1 - Periodisation - Setting training goals

Successfully completing a teqball coaching certificate is just the beginning of a long journey. As the players’ long-term development is the most important, coaches must structure, organise and continuously apply what they learn during educational courses. Coach education seminars and courses only provide the framework for the training sessions, but the coaches have to select and adapt the appropriate drills for each training sessions. In teqball, it is recommended to use a so-called periodisation to prepare the players and contribute to their long-term development.

Periodisation is key when it comes to preparing a specific player for a specific occasion or when the goal is a development of a segment (like physical or technical). Periodisation is a concept where the body and mind (physically and cognitively) are stressed from time to time, allowing these to recover for another stress or impact. This way, the individual gets used to a certain load and the amount of this load can be increased from time to time.

We distinguish three types of cycles within the periodisation:

  • Microcycle: this is the smallest part of the whole periodisation as it means a week of training.
  • Mesocycle: this refers to a bigger training block – like physically improving agility or technically learning how to smash the ball
  • Macrocycle: this is the longest period in which many objectives are defined, but the most important is the end goal of the macrocycle (like a competition – WCHs). For other sports, it is usual to have long macrocycles like the Olympic Games. For teqball, it is recommended to create it for a calendar year approximately – when the WCHs take place.
We must always be aware that teqball cannot be separated due to being an open skill sport. This means that the four pillars (physical, mental, technical and tactical) can’t be isolated and trained in separation from the others. This is also important from a periodisation point of view: individual microcycles do not put together a macrocycle. The mindset of the coach must be in reverse:
  1. First, define the macrocycle with the main, long-term objectives.
  2. Then, divide this macrocycle into mesocycles as per the calendar and smaller competitions allow.
  3. Then, set goals for each macrocycle.

How to set goals for the periodisation?

  1. Before setting any goal, it’s key to know the players, the playing environment and the possible learning curve. For this, we recommend having as much evaluation as possible to have clear and detailed information on the players. These evaluations must always be relevant to teqball. Evaluation examples:
  • Evaluate the number of legal teqball returns
  • Evaluate the number of teqball touches while juggling (with the double touch rule)
  • Evaluate the players in a drill where they have to touch the plexi after each legal return. Count the number of returns
  • Measure the highest point they can reach with their toes
  • Measure the VO2 max of the player.

These are just examples; therefore, the coaches have to adapt their exercises to the players’ needs.

  1. After having the players evaluated, the coach can specify their goals for the macrocycle. Aligning with this, the coach has to count the number of competitions and weekly training sessions. Coaches here must note that the competition day or sometimes days drain much energy.
  2. The next step is dividing the macrocycle into mesocycles. These mesocycles should have a training goal that aims to reach the big final objective. While creating mesocycles, never forget about the big picture. If possible, try to close a mesocycle with a competition.
  3. As mesocycles create a frame for training week(s) which equal to macrocycles, coaches must define / set goals for shorter periods as well.

Periodisation tips:

  • Look at the competition calendar and try to adapt the phases accordingly.
  • Competitions are part of the periodisation! In truth, it is the most emphasised part of it.
  • Have a step-by-step approach! Always stay flexible with the periodisation – as competitions may change – therefore it’s recommended to set the goals for the macrocycle and only one or two mesocycles only.
  • Re-evaluate the previous cycles at the end of a phase. This helps in planning the next steps.
  • Try to stick to your set goals and objectives and do not lose focus just because you have realised you need some changes.
  • Plan with the recovery phase, too.

An example for a 12-month periodisation – for a teqball singles player

Objectives for 1st Mesocycle:

  • Technical: Smashing the ball with the dominant inside of the foot from both sides (singles)
  • Physical: Improve footwork and coordination
  • Mental: Accepting mistakes and regaining focus
  • Tactical: Changing between harvesters and strong attacks

Objectives for 1st Microcycle:

  • Technical: Evaluation of smashing accuracy and quality of execution
  • Physical: Evaluation of coordination and footwork with an agility ladder
  • Mental: Smashing services – dealing with low percentage
  • Tactical: Working on harvesters after defending against normal balls

Objectives for 2nd Microcycle:

  • Technical: Increasing smashing power and accuracy
  • Physical: Coordination drills with teqball
  • Mental: Dealing with low hit percentage
  • Tactical: Working on harvesters bringing the ball from long distances

Objectives for 3rd Microcycle:

  • Technical: Applying smashes from dominant side (right footed – right side of the table)
  • Physical: Footwork and defending
  • Mental: Improving cognitive abilities – reading the opponent’s movement
  • Tactical: Attacking after defending against long and short balls (alternated)

Objectives for 4th Microcycle:

  • Technical: Applying smashes and harvesters in-game, forcing the player to bring the ball to non-dominant side
  • Physical: Stamina and regeneration
  • Mental: Pressure – in game – playing from a trailing situation
  • Tactical: Preparing match plans for the competition
  • COMPETITION! (So the 2nd Mesocycle starts with a regeneration)

Lesson 1/2 - Competition load

The aim of training in teqball is to bring out the maximum level of players, which they can showcase during competition days in a competitive environment. During training sessions, it is challenging to create a competition environment as players playing against each other know each other better after each practice. This moves them into their comfort zone and releases pressure, so there is a risk they may become good performers only during the training sessions.

Competition load is hard to be simulated as competitions last a minimum of 1 day, but in most cases it is two days. During the competitions, players warm up before their first game, then they play one or two “easier” games in the group stages. After this, they sit down and wait for their upcoming game where they need to perform again and again. This cycle repeats during the whole day, while they receive an acyclic physical load which is basically a stress for their body and mind. Teqball is a very technical game, but it requires physical, tactical (consciousness) and mental stamina as well – especially during a whole competition.

During a competition, all the attributes are decreasing: players get more and more tired and it becomes increasingly difficult to get up and play the next game, while the seriousness of the games is growing. Therefore, this makes it even harder to prepare the players for these situations as training sessions are intense and squeezed into 60 to 90 minutes.

In the best case, during a competition a player plays:

  • 3 group stage games
  • 1 game in the Last 16
  • 1 game in the Last 8
  • 1 semi-final
  • 1 final.

These are 7 best-of-three matches in total. If we count with 1 match lasting for approximately 20 minutes on average, it’s then 140 minutes of game time. This more or less equals to 2 training sessions, but without the breaks and the whole competition length.

Tips for simulating the competition training load:

  • If possible, try to have two training sessions on a day where the competition is simulated. Note that, this can’t happen every day – because the competition drains a lot from the players.
  • Try to have separate training sessions than teqball – find a good fitness exercise (running, hiking, cycling or maybe a martial art) that helps the player improve their stamina, agility and their competitive mindset in general.
  • Try to play against unknown opponents as much as possible. This will move the player out of their comfort zone leading to a higher level of adaption to the opponents.
  • Play with the pressure put on the players – e.g.: if the opponent scores a point, it counts as 2 points, while the player’s point is only 1 OR play with an Extra Point rule which the players can request 2 or 3 times during a set. That Extra Point counts as two points.
  • Pay attention to the players’ needs and do not put unnecessary pressure on them, especially in the recovery phases.

Lesson 2 - Analytical vs. Global Training Methodology

After talking about the large concept and setting goals through periodisation, it is important to go into the details of the training methodologies of the individual training sessions. This must not be confused with the periodisation method as this is just for the training sessions, while the other is for setting goals and working systematically.

In teqball – as it’s being an open skill sport, we distinguish two training methodologies:

  • The Analytical Training Methodology;
  • The Global Training Methodology.

The analytical training methodology isolates the four pillars and elements of the game. It is about training the different pillars in a separated, isolated environment focusing on only one aspect at a time. This leads to automated movements, or repetitive training drills. As an example, practicing smashing separately belongs to the analytical training methodology.

Advantages of the analytical training methodology:

  • Drills are easy to organise – easier to focus only on one aspect
  • Goals are achieved through repetition – automating movements
  • Easier to reach a set goal

Disadvantages of the analytical training methodology:

  • Ignores the other factors of the game – as it only focuses on one
  • Applying the practiced technique might be difficult as it’s harder to adapt to the in-game situations

On the contrary, the global training methodology takes the game as a whole with all its pillars. It’s very close to an in-game situation, therefore the adaptation of the movements is happening during the gameplay – and its forms, variations. A good example for this is a teqball game variation – for example, the players need to perform harvesters for the return only. If they can’t do it, so the ball would only bounce once on the table, the opponent receives a point.

Advantages of the global training methodology:

  • Every aspect is involved – simulating in-game situations and scenarios
  • Higher level of adaptation
  • High levels of motivation as the environment is changing
  • Easier to implement the training’s workload into the competitive matches
  • Improvements are directly transferred into the game

Disadvantages of the global training methodology:

  • Less repetition because the game might require other technical executions
  • Less focus on the technical execution

Which one to choose?

We must not forget that teqball is an open skill sport, therefore we would recommend a mixture between the two methodologies. We should let the game teach the players, especially in the foundation years where the applied technique must be cemented rather than immediately starting to focus on smaller elements of the game.

In later stages it is recommended to put more emphasis on the repetitive method which is the analytical methodology. The reason is that teqball is a highly technical sport after reaching a certain state of fitness, coordination and ball control. To improve movements and attacks, they should be practiced repetitively because the body has to be conditioned for those special, dominant movements. This requires specific muscle groups to be worked on depending on the technical executions – even when defending.

Applied technique and basic technique therefore should be separated: applied technique is what happens during gameplay and basic technique is what is practiced separately, in an isolated way.

Coaches must be aware of the training methodologies, and they have to adapt the right combination, a healthy ratio of the two keeping in mind that the final objectives are the competition performance and the long-term development of the players.

Lesson 3 - Teqball Training Drills

After discussing the periodisation and the training methodologies, we have to talk about how to select the right training drills for one training session. The most important tips are:

  • Every training must have a training objective which aligns with the weekly microcycle.

  • The training objective must always be kept in mind.

  • The training must go from simple to complex.

  • The training drills must include variations.

  • The training must fit the players’ needs and adapt to their qualities, age or mental state.

  • The training drills must be diverse.

  • Don’t rush the development of the players! Their development is never linear.

  • Correcting mistakes is important during the whole training session.

  • Try to give space for the players’ creativity and their own decision-making.

  • The training should not exceed 90 minutes.

Firstly, lets take a look at the different phases/part of the teqball training session:


The warm-up aims to prepare the body and mind of the players for the training session. There are different requirements with the warm-up:

  • Physiological:

    • Increase heart rate

    • Open the capillary network – let the blood flow to the muscles

    • Increasing body temperature

  • Psychical:

    • Release muscle tension

    • Get ready for the training

    • Increase motivational level

    • Focus on the performance

  • Technical / Professional:

    • Prepare the player for teqball technique

    • Prepare the neuromuscular coordination

The warm-up can be done either with or without the table. The most important is to get the players ready mentally and physically for the training session.

Goal 1:

Goal 1 is the first main part of the training session. In this phase, the coach must educate as much as possible – focusing on the biggest key area/objective of the training session. In this phase:

  • The coach corrects the movements and executions

  • Educational approach by the coach

  • Training variations

Goal 2:

Goal 2 focuses on another key objective, which is different than Goal 1’s training goal. This change is important so that the players can’t get used to one movement, execution or game situation, but they have to work on another moment of the game. In this phase:

  • The coach uses more like a repetitive drill and its variations

  • The coach motivates and put pressure on the players

  • The coach lets the players practice as much as possible


Application of the learnt techniques. This is the applied technique phase where the drill must be a variation of the original teqball game. (Naturally, it can be simply the game itself, but it is recommended to tailor the drill to force the players to apply the previously learnt technique.) In this phase:

  • Players should be put under pressure – motivation is key

  • The match must have a beginning and an end (it can go up to 6 points or 12 points – it’s up to the coach and the given goal)

  • The points must be counted – rules must be set

Cool down:

This is the last phase of the training session, so it should include:

  • Decreasing the heart rate

  • Summarising the training session

  • Discussion with the players

  • Q&A

  • Stretching and preparation for the next training session

  • Some finishing exercise or a small competition

How long should a training session last?

As mentioned earlier, a teqball training session must not exceed 90 minutes. This rule serves to avoid overtraining or losing motivation. Although there is no strict requirements set, the 5 parts of the training session should take:

  • Warm-up – 15%

  • Goal 1 – 25%

  • Goal 2 – 20%

  • Match – 30%

  • Cool-down – 10%

This means if we have a 90-minute training session:

  • Warm-up – 13,5 min

  • Goal 1 – 22,5 min

  • Goal 2 – 18 min

  • Match – 27 min

  • Cool-down – 9 min.

Lesson 4 - Teqball Playing Styles

As the sport of teqball evolves and the mass participation increases, there are more ideas and approaches coming into play. These approaches result in visible outcomes for the audience and to the teqball community. There are some people who come from South America, some from Asia and some from Europe and they all interpret the same game in a different way. They may use different body parts predominantly or a specific movement or combination than the others. These approaches and behaviours can be categorised noting the following variables:

  • dominant movements (either in and out of possession)
  • dominant body parts
  • dominant combinations
  • dominant tactics.

Teqball playing styles should not be mixed up with teqball tactics. Playing style is the approach players/teams have towards the game. It shows visibly how they imagine the sport of teqball and how they would play it. On the other hand, tactics is the game plan. It is the form and combination the players/teams previously planned in order to overcome the opponent. It is often formed for specific matches or game scenarios. This means a player/team can play within the frames of the same playing style while applying different tactics.

Also, it must be noted that defensive and attacking approaches are not distinguished playing styles, as all playing styles must include their own defensive and attacking approaches, behaviours.

Here are the five playing styles distinguished in teqball:

  1. Teq Style
  2. Sniper Style
  3. Smasher Style
  4. Acrobatic Style
  5. Beach Style

Teq Style

Teq style is the style of play that is very specific to the rules and regulations of the sport of teqball. This evolved separately and was designed specifically to teqball. The dominant elements of this style of play are:

  • Smashes – with the inside of the foot
  • Using the upper-leg – for harvesters and for preparation touches
  • Harvesters – with the upper-leg, chest, head or the foot (pencil – harvester with the tip of the toes). Note: harvesters (shortenings) are very specific to teqball and are not really typical for other related sports.
  • Defending – attacking roles – from a tactical perspective the roles are usually shared during a game.
  • 1-2 combination – in doubles

Sniper Style

In teqball we call a strong, very accurate aimed return made with the head a snipe. As the attacking player have time to analyse the game situation, can look up to see where the opponent(s) and the space are before the attacking header; they are like a sniper. The dominant elements of this style of play are:

  • Snipes – strong, accurate and well-aimed headers
  • Early attacks – in doubles. Attacking on the second touch
  • 1-1-1 combination in doubles – finding the right angles for the preparation touch (pass) – many times the preparing player crosses the halfway line for the preparation.
  • Chest or head preparation touch

Smasher Style

A smash is the action of hitting the ball with a forceful attack touch with the foot. In the smasher style, players always try to find opportunities for their strongest attacking action. They even take high risks as they are trying to play short rallies by finishing with a forceful smash on the table. The dominant elements of this style of play are:

  • Very strong smashes – using the full body for the movement – ball contact with the inside or the instep of the foot
  • High risk-taking – trying to play short rallies
  • 1-1-1 combination in doubles (or 1-1) – using the inside of the foot for the preparation touch
  • Foot preparation touch in singles – both-footedness
  • Different approach to defending – shared responsibilities in defense

Acrobatic Style

As the sport of teqball is growing, more and more acrobatic movements are made by the players. There are teqball-related sports that apply moves requiring high level of flexibility. These actions look spectacular for the audience and can be highly effective. The dominant elements of this style of play are:

  • High level of flexibility – requires a lot of stretching, so players start stretching at a very early age
  • Smashes – mostly with the instep and from very high positions. Smashes with the outside of the foot (called braba in teqball) are also typical
  • Acrobatic movements – jumping, spinning and smooth landing are part of this style of play
  • 2-1 or 1-1-1 combination in doubles
  • Quick footwork – usually players have very quick feet which they can showcase especially in defense

Beach Style

This style of play is mostly applied by players playing on sand a lot. Players often dive and throw themselves on the sand to keep the ball in play. In this style of play they use non-dominant body parts either, like the chest or the shoulders. The dominant elements of this style of play are:

  • Joy of play – players go for each ball passionately – there are no lost balls; they dive for the ball if needed even indoors
  • Diving movements – like they are playing on the beach
  • Using the outside of the foot – to save the ball
  • Shoulder or chest touches – as preparation touches (passes)
  • Bashes (smash with the sole of the foot)

Coaches must be aware of the current five teqball playing styles in order to identify the players’ needs. Nowadays, playing styles are getting merged more and more as the sport of teqball is continuously globalising: players see each other on social media and during competitions, and they constantly learn from each other. They try to “steal” movements and behaviours from one another in order to make their game more unpredictable and efficient. Therefore, it is getting more unlikely that a player or team plays only in one style of play only applying the dominant elements of one specific playing style. But, the main point is to identify their approach so the preparation of the players can be made easier and clearer from a global point of view.

Lesson 5 - Coaching Multiple Players at the Same Time and Coaching Behaviour

Since teqball is getting more popular around the world, coaches are getting more and more attention. As teachers, fathers and motivators, they have to know everything about the sport and one of their biggest roles is to make the players fall in love with teqball. But there may be some difficulties on the road for every coach. The biggest issue is when there are more players on the training session than expected.

It is often the case that there is only a limited number of Teq tables available for more than four training participants. In this case, the coach must be creative and try to involve as many players as possible. In order to reach the sufficient number of ball touches and in-game situations in which they have to use their decision-making and technical skills, there are couple of recommendations:

  • Turn the table around and use the two halves of the Teq table as two separate playing areas. This will make the ball bounce towards the outer side of the players, but it’s still a good idea for experiencing the curve of the table and practice the technical executions. In this case, there may be 8 players rotated very efficiently as there are 4 positions (and two balls) to play in. 2 players per position is a good combination, but the drill must be fast enough to make them rotate quickly, giving them enough time on the ball.
  • Apply drills with more positions. This means if a player executes a movement in one position, they need to then rotate to the next position immediately. With this, the coach wins some time while the players are moving from one position to the other. But coaches must not forget that these types of drills require lots of effort regarding motivation. Coaches are responsible for increasing the tempo and putting pressure on the players.
  • Apply more teqball-alike games for the resting players. This means, they can practice teqball movements individually and also they can imitate the Teq table on the ground while not being active at the real Teq tables. This improves the players a lot as they can practice a very similar skillset right next to the table. The players can practice doubles and singles as well with the exact same teqball rules.
  • Apply round-the-table drills. In these drills, the player executes one defined teqball task and then they go to the end of the line. Coaches must be very precautious with these types of drills because the players may wait too long in the queue before performing their next action. So, applying round-the-table drills with more than 6 players is not recommended! Also, the players need to be motivated so the drill becomes fluid and easy flowing. If the ball goes away, the coach must be prepared to throw in another ball so the practice doesn’t stop.

Teqball coaching behaviour

There are a wide range of factors that can influence a teqball player’s performance. As the sport is young, new innovative ideas keep coming into the sport. Therefore, the athlete mindset must be developed to adapt to these changes and be able to react accordingly. This is the point where the coach steps in.

Role of the teqball coach

The sport of teqball is improving very rapidly, therefore it takes a real effort to keep up with the pace of the improvement of other players. A coach must be up to date and well informed about:

  • Coach education materials and pathways
  • Athlete development opportunities
  • Competitions
  • Qualification system
  • Anti-doping and integrity regulations
  • FITEQ’s and the respective National Federation’s programmes
  • Latest news, events

In order to manage and educate players, the coaches must be leaders, managers and trainers either. They have to pay attention on the athletes and apply the “Athlete first, Coach second” putting the long-term development and wellbeing of the players in front.

A teqball coach is a:

  • teacher
  • motivator
  • trainer
  • manager
  • friend
  • leader
  • role model.

All of these roles in one person. However, a coach must also be a good player themselves, too, so they can introduce the training drills, experience on themselves what’s working and what’s not so the players can truly benefit from their experience. Also, the coach must have video and graphical materials to be able to present the latest movements, matches and high-level events to the players.

Because of the athlete first, coach second mindset, there are two different ways to consider for coaches:

  • There are coaches who has their own philosophy of the game, and they would like to make/form the players to fit to it.
  • There are players who already have a playing style and philosophy of the game in which they can succeed and in which they would like to improve and enjoy playing.

It’s the coach’s role to find the best possible way to make ends meet. Sometimes, the coach has to be flexible enough to change and sometimes it’s the player who needs to be more versatile.

Appearance of a teqball coach

As just mentioned, it is highly recommended for the coach to play teqball in order to introduce and showcase the training drills and movement executions for the players. Therefore, during training sessions, the coach must have a proper training equipment:

  • Proper shoes to play teqball
  • Proper sport socks (no secret socks are allowed)
  • Proper short / training pants
  • Proper training t-shirt or jersey
  • No jewellery is allowed that may cause injuries (or scratch the Teq table).

During competitions, especially when travelling, the coach may have official appearances, events to participate, therefore we recommend having a formal wear as well as training equipment.

In the case of educational courses or seminars delivered, the coaches must dress according to the presentations:

Acceptable apparel:

  • tracksuit with a sports t-shirt or polo shirt
  • business casual (dress jeans with no holes or markings)
  • dress shoes or sneakers or sports shoes
  • shorts (only if practical presentation is required)

Forbidden apparel:

  • flip flops, sandals, hats, head coverings

For practical presentations (like training sessions), an appropriate sport dress is required (no jeans or other formal clothes are accepted).

Lesson 9 - The service

The basics

The service is gaining increasing importance in either singles and doubles teqball. Therefore, it can be very useful to put more emphasis on those in the training sessions, so the player can gain advantage during the service play.

General tips for the service:

  • Find your serving position and plan your run-up or step-up. Pay attention to the service line and to position your grounded body parts behind the table.
  • Always keep your eyes on the ball.
  • Aim for the receiving player’s weaker side.
  • In doubles, it might be a good idea to attack the side where the opponent’s attacking partner is positioned, because it will make the setup more difficult for the receiving player as they may not find the correct angle for an attack.
  • Either you attack strong enough with a downwards trajectory or you should aim for the end of the playing surface with a ball that has a similar path to the curvature of the table.
  • Don’t forget to work on your second service either! If you undertake a too weak second service, your chances are decreasing of winning the point. Your second service should be confident and safe.

In teqball, there are many ways to undertake a successful service. Here, we show you the most common teqball services:

1. Service with the head

Head in teqball is one of the most used body parts. The reason behind it is that the ball contact is relatively close to the eyes of the players and therefore the trajectory of the ball is better anticipated. Another advantage of the headers during gameplay is when the ball is approaching the head of the player, they have more time to look up and analyse the in-game situation. This helps the player execute a better attack. Therefore, headers often result in higher quality and more accurate touches.

Executing a powerful header requires good timing as well as strong supporting muscles. Moreover, headers can definitely be useful during services, because those can be well-placed, strong and slippery at the same time.

There are two ways to head the ball efficiently when undertaking a service:

  1. The first is when the serving player stands facing the opponent’s playing surface with both shoulders looking in the same direction.
  2. The second is when one foot is in front of the other and the upper body of the serving player is facing one side, so the player stands sideways to the table.

Both techniques can be efficient, but both require different muscle groups to be worked on.

Tips for the first type of header services:

  • Decide which foot to put in front. Choose the one that gives more stability and a better balance.
  • Do a short run-up or step-up before the header to gain momentum before the execution. This will allow to add more power to the ball.
  • Throw the ball up just a little bit and keep your eyes on the ball.
  • Hit the ball with the forehead. You can practice ball control with the forehead by balancing the ball on it.
  • Aim for the middle of the ball and attack the ball with the right timing.
  • Concentrate on all the muscles when doing the movement, not only the neck muscles.
  • Aim for the end of the table.
Tips for the second type of header services:
  • Decide which foot to put in front. Usually, it’s the weaker foot of the players, but it varies from person to person.
  • Do a run-up to gain momentum for the movement.
  • Start the movement from the back using your whole body. To make this move powerful, strong side lower back muscles are required.
  • Move your whole upper body from back to the front.
  • Shift your body weight from the back foot to the front foot after the run-up.
  • Do not take too long steps as long strides make you lose dynamism and balance.
  • Throw up the ball just a little bit and keep your eyes on the ball during the whole movement.
  • Try to add a little spin to the ball by hitting the ball on the side of your forehead.
  • Try to go down a little for the ball so you can generate more power for the movement.
  • Aim for the end of the table as the ball will probably take the shape of the table and it will be very difficult to receive for the opponent.

2. Service with the upper leg

The upper leg is also one of the most used body parts in teqball, but players usually use it for harvesters (shortenings) and as a preparation touch. For stronger attacks, it’s not really recommended because the height of the ball contact is just slightly lower than the top of the plexi in most cases. This means, the ball can only go upwards and therefore the attack can not be made so strong.

However, using the upper leg for the service can be beneficial because there is a relatively big flattish surface just over the knees, so the ball can be directed very effectively. We separate two different types of upper leg services based on the path of the ball:

  1. The first type is when the ball is served in a flat way similar to the curvature of the table.
  2. The second type is when the ball is hit with a high trajectory, so it bounces big on the opponent’s side of the table, taking the opponent farther from the table making it more challenging for them to bring the ball back for the return.

Tips for the first type of upper leg services:

  • This type of service is a more powerful service which should be well aimed. Therefore, it’s recommended to find the most suitable distance from the table.
    • Farther services can be hit with more power however it takes more effort to get back to the table afterwards. It might be tiring on the long run.
    • Closer upper leg services also require short run-ups or step-ups, but the emphasis is more on the technique.
  • Slightly bend the grounded leg’s knee when undertaking the service. This helps you to gain more power and momentum for the execution.
  • Release the ball from the front of your upper leg and not from the side. Releasing or slightly throwing the ball from the side may cause issues with aiming the target.
  • More experienced players can also try to add a little spin to the ball by drawing their knees slightly to the side while executing this type of service. Note that this might not be as advantageous as expected.
  • As mentioned, the ball contact is somewhere around the height of the plexi or a bit lower, so the ball can travel on a curved path which is similar to the curvature of the table if the movement is executed properly. This makes the ball slip on the opponent’s surface making it hard to receive the ball after the service.

Tips for the second type of upper leg services:

  • This service is relatively easy, but in the meantime useful to take the opponent farther away from the table, but it can be also dangerous in singles as the opponent can perform a drill just after the bounce.
  • Find your appropriate distance from the table.
  • Release the ball in the front of the executing knee.
  • Hit the ball high enough so the ball can ricochet big enough after the bounce on the table.

3. Service with the foot

Serving with the foot might be one of the most powerful serving option if it’s taken properly. However, this kind of service is quite hard to undertake due to the distance from the target area and the height of the net. Obviously, a player can serve with their foot with an upwards and with a downwards trajectory. An upwards trajectory service with the foot is not really recommended, because it’s easier to receive for the opponent and the foot provides a smaller surface to hit the ball with – making it more difficult to aim the ball. There is one exception though, when the ball’s trajectory takes the curvature of the table, so it’s slightly directed upwards. This one can be a very difficult service for the receiving player as it may slip on the surface just like the header services.

With a downwards trajectory, a player can hit the ball with the inside and with the instep of the foot.

Tips for the inside of the foot services:
  • Find your proper position where you feel the most comfortable in
  • You have to hit the ball as high as possible, but in the meantime, you must not lose power
  • Experience if you need to be in motion for the service or it’s preferable to stay in one place for the service
  • Note that you need a higher level of flexibility to undertake a smashing service
  • Imagine the movement in advance
  • Try to find the right ball throw – it might be a little bit to the side or little bit to the front
  • Hit the ball with the inside of the foot where there is the largest surface
  • Don’t forget to watch your grounded foot which should be behind the service line

Tips for the instep of the foot services:

  • Note that this movement requires a very high level of flexibility
  • Try to hit the ball as high as possible
  • Lock your ankle and aim from high to low
  • Rotate the grounded foot during the movement – it should face the target area
  • Try to hit the ball accurately rather than too powerfully – the locked ankle will give the ball enough power anyway
  • It is recommended to stay in one position rather than using a run-up

4. Special services

Apart from the previous three categories, we can talk about other special services, like the backspin services where the aim is to make the ball bounce once on the opponent’s surface and then it should spin backwards so that the next bounce is on the serving player’s playing surface. This technique is very hard to learn and apply efficiently, but it’s very useful because only the receiving player can touch the ball after the bounce on the table – making it almost impossible to save these.

Also, there are other acrobatic movements. For this, we must note that at least one body part must be touching the ground at the moment of undertaking the service (when the contact is made with the ball). For these acrobatic movements players often choose their hands to touch the ground with.

Lesson 7 - Types of touches

There are four types of touches distinguished in teqball:

  1. Control touch
  2. Preparation touch
  3. Attack touch
  4. Reflex touch

Control touch

The control touch is a first touch when all the anticipation, analysis and decision-making is perceived well and the touch itself is foreseen by the player. It happens when a player receives the ball in an easy, well-anticipated way and touches the ball accordingly. The control touch requires a good body positioning which provides the athlete enough time to plan their movements ahead.

Preparation touch

The preparation touch is a closed skill activity, and this touch prepares the attack of the player. This touch is directed upwards so that the attacking player can gain time before the return. In doubles, a pass is also considered a preparation touch. This type of touch only serves for finding a better angle and position for the attack.

Attack touch

The attack touch is the ball contact the player returns the ball to the opponent side with. It is usually directed downwards with a strong hit so that the ball may bounce, dragging the defender away from the table, making it more difficult to return it. Although as known, there are two effective ways in teqball to win a point – and the other one is the harvester (the shortening).

This means, a harvester, where the ball is aimed to bounce twice or more on the opponent’s side of the table is also considered an attack touch. The harvesters are slightly directed upwards, so this is considered a different type of attack touch – specific to the sport of teqball only.

Reflex touch

Teqball requires much anticipation of movements. When this anticipation, or the in-game analysis, or the decision-making or the technical execution is performed in a way that it has an unexpected outcome, a player may need to take a reflex touch to solve the in-game situation. The curvature of the table can also trick the receiving player as the ball may come from an angle which is unusual for the receiver, or the opponent can fake / trick the receiving player with their deceiving movements.

Lesson 8 - Teqball for beginners

As the sport of teqball is developing very fast, more and more athletes are joining the teqball community. This naturally involves first-time Teq table users and enthusiastic youngsters. For them, the coaches have to create a welcoming and motivational atmosphere during the training sessions.

Teqball athlete development pyramid

Coaches should follow the athlete development pyramid from bottom to top when teaching teqball:

1. Ball Control

Being able to juggle the ball at least 3 times with different body parts with confidence is the first step to become able to play teqball. But it only provides a very basic skillset as it is a closed skill activity with no changing variables and also the movements used in teqball are different from just simply juggling in one place.

To start coaching beginners (or kids), we should start with ball control exercises that are specific to teqball. One of the best ways to develop this skill is juggling and its variations. We can apply the following method and exercises:

  1. Juggling with bounces on the ground: one kick up and one bounce, one kick up and one bounce and so forth.
  2. Juggling with bounces on the ground using different body parts after each other
  3. Juggling in one place without the intention to move with the ball – with no bounces between the touches
  4. Juggling in one place with no bounces – using different body parts
  5. Juggling while moving forward
  6. Juggling while moving forward using different body parts
Tips to practice juggling:

• Kick the ball upwards, just above your head!

• Lock your ankle before the ball touch with the foot!

• Bend your knees slightly!

• Stay ready to react quickly!

• Stay patient and don’t act too quickly! Find your rhythm!

2. Serving

The next step to playing teqball after having confidence on the ball is to experience the unique curve. For this, it is a good option to practice the services and other steady position hits on the table. For the serving player it helps to find the right angles, right power, and appropriate body positions for different types of hits. Naturally, the positions of the services can be modified so that players can experience many different scenarios.

But with this, we do not only practice the serving, but we can immediately jump onto the receptions in a very initial way – like catching the ball without a bounce and then serving from the position where the ball was caught.

3. Reception (defending)

Reception can refer to the reception of the services and the returns during gameplay. This phase still helps the players develop a sense of the curve and how the ball would bounce off the playing surface. After practicing the services successfully, we should continue learning the game by practicing the first touch as a control touch. As known, it requires perfect anticipation and correct body positioning in order to take a good control touch.

The angles should be varied during the practice so that the players can experience more situations.

In case the serves are received in a convenient way, the coach should implement returns from next to the table that should be received well.

4. Preparation

After the reception (control), the players should be prepared to move with the ball as practiced in step one. From the point of reception, the touches should be directional towards the point of attack. It is recommended to connect the reception with the preparation meaning two consecutive teqball touches should be taken while the player is in motion.

As the players are practicing a combination (without the finish/attack touch), it should be practiced in order to cement a couple of touch combinations, for example:

  • Stronger foot (control) – stronger upper leg (preparation)
  • Stronger foot (control) – weaker foot (preparation)
  • Weaker foot (control) – stronger foot (preparation).

For the majority of the players, it is convenient to prepare the ball with the upper leg or one foot, although other solutions might be preferred by some athletes – like preparation touch with the chest, shoulder, or the head. It shall be noted that if a player is planning to have a third touch, then the second touch should be planned to be made with another body part (i.e.: if the plan is to attack with the head, then the second touch can’t be made with the head). Also, it should be considered that attacking with the foot (smash) after touching the ball with the head is quite difficult.

5. Attacking

Attacking is the last step before putting together a game plan or tactics. To play teqball according to the rules, the returning body part must be alternated after each return. This means that a minimum of two attacks should be developed to a high level. Firstly, attacking should be practiced in a stationary position (similar to serving), then in motion. The two most used attacks in teqball are made with the stronger foot (smash usually) and with the head (head smash or harvester). Also, the upper leg and the chest are used for harvesters as an alternative.

6. Game plan (tactics)

The final step of building up the game of the player is to combine the movements into touch combinations attached to a game plan. Implementing and practicing the dominant touch combinations are key part of teqball either in singles or doubles as these define attacking and defending tactics within the style of play.

Lesson 6 - Youth Development

FITEQ regulates the different age categories in teqball. These formats serve to protect the future and current teqball athletes from any harms, short or long-term injuries, and to protect their rights. The following age groups are separated in teqball:

  • 12-16 years old (U16)
  • 15-18 years old (U18)
  • 16+ (Senior)
  • 45+ (Veteran)

The athlete’s age is determined by how old he or she is by 31 December of the year they are participating at any FITEQ owned or organised event.

For the preliminary age category U12 – under 12, organised competition is contraindicated. The reason is that there are many academic studies to prove that hitting the ball with the head may cause long-term brain diseases, and in general affects the development of the body and mind in a negative way. And – as known – in teqball, one of the mostly used body part is the head – especially in the case of shorter athletes who may not be able to find other ways of attacking.

Even though the ball is inflated to a 0,3-0,6 bars of pressure, headers can cause small traumas to the players – so the minimum age that is recommended to start playing teqball is the age of 12. Please note that it may depend on the individual growth. A single header is unlikely to cause any significant damage, but over an extended period of the combined effect might lead to more and more problems.

Training U12

As it was highlighted, the age of 12 is the first age group to start practicing teqball in a general sense. But there are under 12 kids who are attracted to the ball and the Teq table. For them, a specific training session is required.

The main objectives to reach in the U12 age group:

  • Develop a basic skillset with and without the ball
  • Develop a basic coordination skill for teqball
  • Safe movements around the table in and out of possession
  • Understand the main rules of teqball
  • Ability to hit the Teq table from the service
  • Ability to return the ball with 1, 2 and 3 touches

During their training sessions, coaches must completely avoid headers in a regular form to prevent young athletes from a possible CTE (Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy). CTE is a brain disease that causes dementia in the later stages of their lives. But, on the other hand, coaches must prepare kids for the use of their head for the future. For this, FITEQ recommends the following:

  • Use rubber/sponge balls to practice heading only
  • Rubber/sponge balls can also be applied to play teqball with
  • Practice headers with a balloon first to build the muscles relevant to headers
  • Use the step-by-step approach and start with the easiest heading technique: front forehead headers
  • Do not take too many headers, use a gradient approach

Coaches must note that a 12-year-old child is approximately between 135cm and 155cm tall. We also know that the highest point of the Teq table is 760mm; and adding the plexi (140mm) to it makes it up to 900mm which equals 90cm.

This means that a 12-year-old teqball player needs to attack (downwards trajectory ball) from above chest height at least.

Here are some tips for their training sessions:

  • The training session must not exceed 60 minutes.
  • The training session must completely avoid headers! (Except for with a rubber/sponge ball)
  • The warm up must be done with the ball only!
  • The safety distance from the Teq table must always be kept to avoid any collisions after unbalanced situations!
  • Kids should use their hands to control (and prepare) the ball.
  • Kids should feel the curvature of the table first.
  • The Teqball Athlete Development Pyramid (see below) should be implemented.
  • During the training session, a more deflated, lighter ball should be used for the kids.
  • Do not be afraid to implement new ideas – like using a balloon for juggling.

Training U16

Between the ages of 12 and 16, coaches must establish the base of technique and general game understanding – including the playing style. Players’ style and character can be formed the best way in this period of time.

The main objectives to reach in the U16 age group:

  • Understanding the game and playing styles
  • High-level basic ball skills
  • High-level coordination skills
  • Attacking methods and attacking strengths
  • High-level defending abilities (positioning and technique)
  • High-quality attacking positions in singles and doubles
  • Accurate preparation
  • Own individual and team tactics against all types of opponents
  • Fair play
  • Strive for the beautiful game
  • Characteristic, recognisable game

Therefore, we recommend the following tips for training sessions:

  • Each training session must fit in the long-term player development!
  • Coaches have to introduce the headers slowly – paying much attention to the athletes!
  • The ball should be the regular teqball ball with a regular inflation as per the rules and regulations.
  • The training session can be extended to 80-90 minutes depending on the players’ needs.
  • The Teqball Athlete Development Pyramid must be implemented in a systematic way!
  • For the heading a gradual approach must be implemented – only a few headers are recommended in the beginning.

Training U18

The U18 age group includes the athletes between 15 and 18 years of age. This is the age category before the official senior, professional category. This means athletes of this age group must be systematically prepared for the competitions only. This requires a different mindset from the coaches as the transformation happens from amateur to professional teqball.

The main objectives to reach in the U18 age group are:

  • Develop a competitive mindset in the players
  • Confidence in playing
  • Preparing players for the competition load
  • Long-term-development process to be kept in focus
  • Tactical and high-level technical approach
  • Physical preparation plays a larger part – including complementary trainings as stretching and rehabilitation
  • Paying attention to supplementary factors: sleeping, resting, nutrition, ratios of these

The recommendations of the U18 training sessions are as follows:

  • Maximum of 90 minutes training to avoid overtraining and possible injuries
  • Always start with a warm-up and finish with a cool-down
  • Increasing pressure during the training session (from the warm-up to the match phase)
  • Talk with the athletes continuously – how they feel, what they want to improve in the most, etc.
  • Be a mentor, a friend, but always stay professional
  • Coach in the moment
  • Talk about next steps and positive consequences
  • Listen and empower
  • Focus on 2-3 strengths only, develop the weaknesses step-by-step

TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE - Coaching topics

In the following link, you can test your knowledge. Test type: mock test Attempts: 2 attempts allowed Time limit: 15 minutes Questions: 12 questions Pass mark: 85%

Teqball Glossary

Teqball Glossary


The person who is responsible for the scoring during a teqball match.


The touch in which a player returns the ball to an opponent’s playing surface. This touch directs the ball strongly with a trajectory downwards to the target area.


The rear surface of the body from the shoulders to the hips, including the rear part of the neck and the buttocks.


When a player returns the ball with the sole, hitting it strongly with a downward trajectory.


Type of acrobatic return, where the foot is above the level of the head, the trajectory of the ball is downwards, and no body part is touching the ground at the moment of a return.


Strong attacking movement with the outside of the foot.


A double fault when serving.


The front surface of the body from the shoulders to the hips, including the front part of the neck.


A person appointed for a particular competition who is responsible for the referees’ performance, management, and supervision.


A skilful attacking shot which aims to deceive the opponent by feigning a return before using the instep of the standing foot to return the ball.


A designated zone for coaches next to the teqball court. Coaches cannot leave this area during the match unless they are dismissed.


A person appointed to manage and supervise the pre-competition, competition, and post-competition events.


The first touch when all the anticipation, analysis and decision-making is perceived well and the touch itself is foreseen by the player.


The border(s) of the teqball court.


When the ball bounces back from the net and remains in play.


An occurrence in teqball doubles when both teammates try to play the ball at the same time but neither touch the ball due a miscommunication.


The occurrence of two consecutive edgeballs in the service. This counts as one service fault.


The action when a player returns the ball with one touch in singles with their sole and it spins backwards upon landing on the opponent’s playing surface.


An occurrence in a rally when the ball bounces on the edge of the Teq table.


When the ball hits the edge of the opponent’s playing surface without anything or anybody touching it in the air after a legal return or service. The ball must then bounce on the ground or touch anything but the players or the table in order to consider it an edgeball.


Force majeure occurs when the referee stops the game during a valid rally.


The player/team listed second for the respective match in the draw.


The straight line in the middle of the teqball court, dividing it into two equal halves.


The act of touching the ball with the hands and arms while the ball is in play.


A return purposely hit softly so that it falls on the opponent’s playing surface very close to the net. Purposely short return.


The upper part of the body from above the top of the neck.


An honorary title at FITEQ.


An action in teqball in which the player hits the ball with their head.


The player/team listed first for the respective match in the draw.


When the returning (attacking) player’s leaning body part(s) or the point of touch with the ball crosses the extended imaginary line of the net at the moment of a return. Bicycle kicks are only legal attacks in beach teqball.


A return where the ball flies underneath or crosses the extended imaginary line of the top of the net before bouncing on the opponent’s playing surface.


A straight line in beach teqball two metres away from the reflection of the end of the table on the ground. This line is not drawn in the sand to decrease the risk of injury.


A halt in play that can be requested by an injured player (or their teammate) to treat the injury.


The part of the body below the middle of the knee; this means that the inside of the foot is the same body part as the outside of the foot.


The upper joint of each arm and the part of the body between this and the neck.


The part of the body between the hips and the middle of the knee, excluding the buttocks.


The person who officiates during a teqball match.


A contest of two (singles) or four (doubles) players in teqball. A match is won by the first player/team reaching two sets.


The permanently fixed, PMMA, transparent thermoplastic boundary of the two playing surfaces on the Teq Table.


The three bounces rule is when the ball touches the net at least once and then bounces at least three times on the opponent’s playing surface without being touched by anybody or anything. In this case, the rally shall be repeated.


A return made with the tip of the foot, usually a harvester.


The Teq Table is divided into two equal playing surfaces by the net.

The opponent’s playing surface is the target area on the Teq table a player/team should return the ball to.

The player’s/team’s playing surface is the side of the Teq Table where the opponent player/team should return the ball to.


The score that is awarded after a player’s/team’s opponent cannot legally return the ball.

The score that is awarded after the second warning of a player/team.


The touch that prepares the attack touch of a player. This touch is directed upwards so that the attacking player can gain time before the attack touch.


The period during which the ball is in play. It begins with a service and ends with a point awarded to one of the players/teams.


When the ball bounces on the edge of the Teq table two times consecutively.


The player in singles or doubles game who can legally touch the ball after a service.


The action of receiving the ball after the opponent’s service or return.


The pair of straight lines marking the location of the imaginary service line on both sides. It must be an orange/white stripe with a minimum of one metre and a maximum of two metres in length.


The touch that is required when a players' anticipation, analysis, decision-making or the previously taken technical execution is performed in a way that has an unexpected outcome.


The person at major competitions whose role is to be on standby to officiate, should a substitution need to take place.


The action when a player/team hits the ball and it lands on the opponent’s playing surface. The service is not considered as a return.


The part of the body below the middle of the knee; this means that the inside of the foot is the same body part as the outside of the foot.


The upper joint of each arm and the part of the body between this and the neck.


The part of the body between the hips and the middle of the knee, excluding the buttocks.


The action when the serving player tosses the ball from their hand and hits it in the air. The service must be made from behind the service line and must land on the opponent’s playing surface.


A straight line two metres away from the reflection of the end of the table on the ground. The service must be made from behind this service line.


The player in singles or doubles game who starts the rally with a service.


A period of play that is won by the first player/team reaching 12 points. The final, decisive set must be won by at least a two-point margin.


When a returning player intentionally feints an attack touch but does not touch the ball, with the ball then landing on the opponent’s playing surface anyway.


When the ball hits the side of the table below the playing surface after a legal return and bounces downwards.


When players/teams change ends between sets. In the final set, players/teams have to switch sides when 6, 12 and 18 points are reached by the leading player/team.


The action of hitting the ball with a forceful attack touch with the foot.


A strong and very accurate aimed return made with the head.


When a player performs a harvester that spins backwards.


When the returning player in doubles intentionally hits the ball in between the two opponents.


A person who is involved with the management, preparation or participation of a player/team, including coaches, medical staff or other support staff acting for or on behalf of a club or association.


A person who controls the play of a competition by applying the rules and regulations of the sport.


The official “Class C - recreational-level” sport equipment. This type of table is used at amateur tournaments.


The official “Class A - high-level” sport equipment. This type of table is used at official FITEQ tournaments.


The official “Class B - professional-level” sport equipment. This type of table is used at national and club level tournaments.


The main sport equipment required to play teqball. The Teq table is curved to make the ball bounce towards the players, making the gameplay continuous.


A rectangular playing surface marked with surrounds measuring a minimum of 12x16 metres.


A one minute halt in a game requested by the players/teams. It is usually used to discuss the game, plan strategies, or take a short rest. Players/teams only have one time out opportunity during a best-of-three set game.


When the receiving player/team touches the ball after a return before it would land on the Teq table.



In the following link, you can undertake the final exam of the Level Intro+ Test. Test type: Final exam Attempts: 1 attempt allowed Time limit: 30 minutes Questions: 30 questions Pass mark: 85% Certificate provided: Yes.



1. Can anyone participate the FITEQ Coaching Course Level Intro +? Yes, the registration and participation is open for the public. The course is free of charge and provides an official certificate issued by FITEQ. 2. Is FITEQ Coaching Course Level Intro mandatory for this education course? No, but it is recommended to start with the basics, therefore we strongly recommend to undertake the FITEQ Coaching Course Level Intro at http://education.fiteq.org 3. After taking this course, what are the next steps as a certified teqball coach? FITEQ's Coach Education pathway officially starts with the Level Intro course (not with the Level Intro + course), therefore it is recommended to follow that pathway firstly. After completing the Level Intro certification, the Level 1 course is the next (then Level 2 and Level 3). The Level 1 course is organised by the national governing body of the sport of teqball and para teqball which is the local National Teqball Federation. The local NF oganises the next level courses with the assistance of FITEQ. 4. I would like to deliver education courses as a presenter, officially representing teqball. What should I do? For the Presenters, FITEQ is working on a Train the Trainers certificate which authorises the participants to officially represent FITEQ during educational courses. For more details, please contact education@fiteq.org via email. 5. Are the courses available in multiple languages? Most of the courses are already available in many different languages, but FITEQ is working on the translation of all materials into multiple languages. 6. What if I don't pass the final exam? Officially, all participants have one attempt, but with an email written to education@fiteq.org, explaining the reason of failure, FITEQ may give another opportunity with a one calendar week difference.

Course Information

The FITEQ Coaching Course Level Intro + is an additional online education course to FITEQ's coach education pathway. This course provides in-depth knowledge for teqball athletes, teqball coaches, PE teachers and all prospective members of the teqball community. The Level Intro + course is not mandatory for further coach education, but is recommended. Participants learn about the history of teqball in general, about the most important events and programs of FITEQ and many different detailed coaching topics, like the periodisation, goal-setting, coaching more players simultaneously and teqball playing styles. Please find some important details below:

  • Course prerequisites: none, only registration on http://fiteq.org
  • Participation: open for all
  • Course price: free
  • Learning time: ~2 hours (120 minutes)
  • Final exam: 1 attempt, 30 questions, 30 minutes
  • Passing grade: 85%
  • Certificate: yes, officially recognised by FITEQ

Step-by-Step Guide

In order to successfully complete the FITEQ Coaching Course Level Intro +, the participants need to follow the steps as per below:

  1. Register on http://fiteq.org
  2. On this page, read the lessons in the General Topics category and watch the additional videos
  3. In the General Topics category, undertake the mock exam ("Test your knowledge")
  4. On this page, read the lessons in the Coaching Topics category and watch the additional videos
  5. In the Coaching Topics category, undertake the mock exam ("Test your knowledge")
  6. On this page, read through the Teqball Glossary
  7. Summarise and study the materials once again
  8. On this page, in the FINAL EXAM category, undertake the final exam
  9. Receive your official certificate