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General Topics

Lesson 1 - History of teqball


Teqball is a football-based sport created in Hungary in 2012 by three football enthusiasts: Gábor Borsányi, a former professional football player, Viktor Huszár, a computer scientist and György Gattyán, a Hungarian businessman. Gábor Borsányi is the creative innovator of the sport who used to be playing football tennis on the concrete table tennis tables near the place he had lived. He and his friends found out that the game is excellent and enjoyable for football-lovers, but the sport equipment is not appropriate because the ball doesn’t bounce off the table. He thought the table should be bent to solve this issue.

During the year of 2000, Gábor used to work on the shore of the Hungarian Lake Balaton, where he met some footballers who played the same game he had played before. He wanted to join to challenge them. Finally, Gábor came out as the winner, so the dream of curving the table was reborn.

Couple of year later he met Viktor Huszár, a computer scientist and football-lover who fell in love with the idea immediately. They decided to create a plan and start working on the realisation of the idea. They reached out to György Gattyán, an international businessman who also liked it and joined Gábor and Viktor as the third founder of Teqball.

They spent some years experimenting what would be the ideal curve, length, and width of the table. Eventually, they released the first prototype of the Teq Table, called the Teq One, in 2014. The official presentation of the sport only happened two years after, on 18 of October in 2016, in Budapest, Hungary with the presence and active involvement of the Ballon d’Or, Champions League and World Cup Winner, Ronaldinho. He became one of the first ambassadors of teqball.

From this day, the sport has been evolving and under the leadership of the International Teqball Federation (FITEQ) it is conquering the world. There are more than 125 countries playing teqball and more than 115 countries having a National Teqball Federation officially recognised by FITEQ.

The main goals of the sport of teqball is to become a programme sport on the Olympic Games and to create a mass sport played in communities all over the world.




Lesson 2 - Teq Tables


After the release of Teq One in 2014, FITEQ continued to develop the sports equipment, making it accessible to a wider range of people. Therefore, it is important to review all the existing Teq tables and their attributes. Naturally, the width, length and height parameters are the same for all Teq tables, ensuring that any table can be used for practicing teqball.

Teq One

  • Teq One is the official “Class A – high-level” table which is used at FITEQ’s official tournaments
  • Indoor and outdoor: the table can be fixed to the ground
  • The plexi (net) is made of Poli(metil-metakrilat) – PMMA
  • The plexi is transparent
  • The playing area is made of HPL (High pressure laminate) (with a fine structured tabletop with matte finish)
  • The leg structure is made of steel which also has an anti-corrosive coating on
  • It weighs 147 kgs
  • It’s weather resistant

Teq Smart

  • Teq Smart is the official “Class B – professional-level” table which is used at national and club level tournaments
  • Indoor and outdoor: the table can be rolled on wheels so it’s portable
  • Easy opening/closing (with a safety lock): it can be used for individual practice
  • The plexi (net) is made of Poli(metil-metakrilat) – PMMA
  • The plexi is transparent
  • The playing area is made of HPL (High pressure laminate) (with a fine structured tabletop with matte finish)
  • The leg structure is made of steel which also has an anti-corrosive coating on
  • It weighs 168 kgs
  • It’s weather resistant

Teq Lite

  • It was released in 2019 during the 3rd World Championships
  • Teq Lite is the official “Class C – recreational-level” table which is used at amateur tournaments
  • Indoor and outdoor: the table can be rolled on wheels so it’s portable and easy to move
  • Easy opening/closing (with a safety lock): it can be used for individual practice
  • The plexi (net) is made of high density polyethylene
  • The plexi is black coloured
  • The playing area is made of fiberglass reinforced polyester
  • The leg structure is made of steel which also has an anti-corrosive coating on
  • It weighs 111 kgs, so this is the lightest table
  • It’s weather resistant
Teq X
  • It was released in 2021
  • Indoor and outdoor
  • Fixed structure – easy to assemble
  • The plexi (net) is made of high density polyethylene
  • The plexi is black coloured
  • The playing area is made of fiberglass reinforced polyester
  • The leg structure is made of steel which also has an anti-corrosive coating on
  • It’s weather resistant




Lesson 3/1 - FITEQ


FITEQ is the abbreviation of the International Teqball Federation, which is the governing body of the sports of teqball and para teqball.

FITEQ, as a non-profit organisation is responsible for the governance and management of teqball at the international level; the development and promotion of teqball globally; the codification of the official rules and regulations of teqball; supporting the establishment of National Federations; the education and development of athletes, coaches and technical officials; sanctioning national and international competitions and events; establishing and maintaining world-ranking statistics; and the governance, management and development of para teqball.

FITEQ was founded in March 2017 with Gábor Borsányi elected as first (and current) president, Viktor Huszár as vice-president (currently he is the Chairman of FITEQ), and György Gattyán as vice-president. Later on, they were joined by Marius Vizer Jr as the General Secretary of FITEQ and Matthew Curtain who leads the management team of the sport as Sport Director.

FITEQ is headquartered in Budapest, Hungary, in the country where the sport of teqball was invented.




Lesson 3/2 - FITEQ's recognitions


Only one year after its establishment, FITEQ was recognised by the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) in August 2018. This meant that teqball was no longer a sport activity but became an officially recognised sport.

Another year passed and FITEQ was recognised by the Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa (ANOCA) in June 2019. Straight after the recognition, teqball became a demonstration sport at the 1st African Beach Games in 2019.

FITEQ has since been recognised by the Organisation of Sports Federations of Oceania (OSFO).

Another key achievement was when FITEQ was approved as full member of the Global Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF) in 2020. This recognition is a crucial step in becoming an International Olympic Committee (IOC) recognised sport, which is a requirement for all sports with aspirations to be on the Olympic Games programme.

FITEQ became a Signatory of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), which is an organisation co-funded by the IOC and governments around the world to lead the fight against doping in sport. FITEQ also has a long-term partnership with the International Testing Agency, to help ensure FITEQ promotes clean sport through robust testing and education for its athletes.




Lesson 3/3 - Events and Competitions


FITEQ’s current competition portfolio can be found on fiteq.org under the Events section.

The flagship competition in teqball is the Teqball World Championships:

In June 2017, the same year FITEQ was established, the 1st Teqball World Championships was organised in Budapest in two different categories: Singles and Doubles. There were 20 countries participating and also football stars, like Nwanko Kanu and William Gallas in attendance. The winner in singles was the Hungarian Adam Blazsovics, who beat Mate Szolga in the final. In doubles, Romania came out on top as Zsolt Lazar and Barna Szecsi beat the Hungarian duo of Balazs Imreh and Robert Szepessy.

So, the first singles World Champion is Adam Blazsovics from Hungary and in doubles, it’s Zsolt Lazar and Barna Szecsi from Romania.

One year later, in October 2018, FITEQ organised the 2nd World Championships in Reims, France with 42 different countries participating from all over the world. There were two categories: in singles, Barna Szecsi from Romania won the title against the Hungarian Arpad Sipos, while in doubles it was Bogdan Marojevic and Nikola Mitro representing Montenegro who won the gold medal against the Hungarian duo of Adam Blazsovics and Csaba Banyik.

In December 2019, Hungary hosted the 3rd World Championships, once again held in Budapest. There were teqball competitions in three categories: singles, doubles and mixed doubles for the first time.

The singles competition was won by Adam Blazsovics for the second time, as he beat Adrian Duszak from Poland in the final. The doubles competition was won by the Adam Blazsovics – Csaba Banyik duo, who defeated previous world champions Bogdan Marojevic and Nikola Mitro. The first mixed doubles champions were Natalia Guitler and Marcos Vieira from Brazil, who beat the Hungarian duo of Zsanett Janicsek and Csaba Banyik in the final.

Please find a short summary of the three teqball world championships below:

It can be observed that in 2017, 12 points were needed to win a set and in 2018-2019 it was extended to 20 points. After the World Championships in 2019, the rule was reset to 12 points and as per today these rules are in force.

There have been many other important competitions held by FITEQ, out of which it is important to highlight the following:

  • African Beach Teqball Cup (2019): This was the demonstration event of teqball during the 1st African Beach Games in Sal, Cape Verde. 14 African countries were represented, with the Cameroonian duo Hubert Noah and Gregory Tchami winning the doubles competition in the sand.
  • Asia-Pacific Teqball Beach Cup (2019): This beach event was held in Sanya, China with eight countries represented. The doubles team from Japan, Wase Akinori and Yajima Daisuke won the tournament beating Team Malaysia in the final.
  • Teqball Masters 2019: This competition was organised in two different categories: singles and doubles, and was hosted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. There were eight countries involved. In singles, Adrian Duszak won the competition representing Poland and in doubles it was the Adam Blazsovics – Csaba Banyik duo from Hungary who came out on top in the sand.

Teqball was officially added to the programme of the Asian Beach Games 2020 in Sanya, China as a medal sport, but the whole multisport competition was postponed due to the COVID Pandemic. Additionally, in 2023 FITEQ will be a medal sport at the European Games 2023 in Krakow, Poland.

For the most recent competition calendar and portfolio, please visit fiteq.org




Lesson 3/4 - Famous Teqers


As mentioned earlier, Ronaldinho was one of the first stars to officially represent teqball as an ambassador. However, more famous footballers have since stood up to support teqball, including William Gallas, Carles Puyol, Nuno Gomes, Simao Sabrosa, David Beckham and Luis Figo.

Apart from retired footballers, there are many active football clubs and players who own and use Teq tables as a supplementary training exercise:

  • Clubs:
    • Manchester United
    • FC Barcelona
    • PSG
    • Chelsea
    • Tottenham
  • National Teams:
    • Belgium
    • Brazil
    • Germany
  • Players:
    • Lionel Messi
    • Philippe Coutinho
    • Sadio Mane
    • Roberto Firmino
    • Neymar Jr.




Lesson 3/5 - FITEQ Education Programme


The FITEQ Education Programme defines the learning pathway for teqball athletes, referees, and coaches from an introduction to the new sport to a professional level. The programme includes all stages of the education affiliated with FITEQ or a National Federation (NF). Subject to meeting the requirements set forth in this guideline, all NFs and associated partners of FITEQ are eligible to organise the following referee and coach education courses:

• an equivalent course to the first (online) level of the FITEQ Education Programme (both in refereeing and coaching)

• FITEQ International Level Course(s)

The main objectives of the FITEQ Education Programme are:

• to provide a systematic, measurable and continuous pathway for all prospective referees, coaches and athletes that would like to go into the details of the sport of teqball;

• to increase the number of certified teqball community members;

• to ensure the professional development and continuous improvement of certified teqball referees and coaches (or other technical officials);

• to enhance the quality of the people that are already certified;

• to develop and promote teqball worldwide.

There are separate pathways for both referees and coaches:

Refereeing Pathway:

Coaching Pathway:

As it can be seen, the first levels (Level C and Level Intro) can be done online. These courses are open to anybody and free of charge. These can be undertaken via education.fiteq.org.

Level B and Level 1 courses are organised by the National Federations with the approval of FITEQ. Additionally, for these courses, an official FITEQ Presenter is required to deliver the course operationally.

The FITEQ Education Programme document includes all the relevant information about education pathways and courses. The most updated Education Programme document can be viewed and studied via education.fiteq.org in the Documents section.




Lesson 3/6 - Para Teqball


Guided by our belief that sport is for all, FITEQ aims to be as inclusive as possible to ensure all athletes can enjoy the world’s fastest growing sport. We want to embrace and spread the values that define parasport, notably determination, courage, inspiration, and equality. Regardless of age, gender or social background, everyone should have the same opportunity to access sport, whether it is playing recreationally or competing at an elite level.

Para teqball is a dynamic ball game that effectively develops players’ physical and cognitive skills and helps create an active and more balanced lifestyle. It inspires all players to reach their full potential, whatever level that might be.

As part of its ongoing effort to be as inclusive as possible, FITEQ is professionalising para teqball, to provide elite para teqball athletes the opportunity to compete in official FITEQ events.

We want to give everyone the chance to dream big and with the innovative and dynamic sports of para teqball, we can unveil the hidden talents of para teqball athletes all around the world!

Learn more about para teqball here.




Lesson 3/7 - Sport Integrity and Anti-Doping


Sport integrity

The word integrity means to be whole and undivided but also the quality of being honest with strong moral principles. In sport, this means the manifestation of the ethics and values which promote confidence in sports, including positive conduct by its members and community. Hence, the purpose of the sport integrity framework is to protect teqball against illegal and immoral activities.

The general discussion around sport integrity includes words like fairness, inclusivity, honesty, trust, values, ethics, morals, beliefs, respect and fairness. Traditionally, the sport integrity also includes subjects such as doping, match-fixing, corruption, or cheating.

However, there are countless examples of what is a violation of sport integrity. Thus, the best way to think about sport integrity, is to think about what behaviour or action may impact people’s positive experience of the sport or negatively impact the values of the sport. In other words, if you do not wish to be treated that way, also refrain from doing it. Yet, as sport integrity is more complex than that, it is important that at the very least, FITEQ members are informed about these issues.

Learn more about sport integrity here.

Anti-doping

Anti-doping programs seek to maintain the integrity of sport in terms of respect for rules, other competitors, fair competition, a level playing field, and the value of clean sport to the world.

The spirit of sport is the celebration of the human spirit, body and mind. It is the essence of Olympism and is reflected in the values we find in and through sport, including:

• Health

• Ethics, fair play and honesty

• Athletes’ rights as set forth in the Code

• Excellence in performance

• Character and Education

• Fun and joy

• Teamwork

• Dedication and commitment

• Respect for rules and laws

• Respect for self and other Participants

• Courage

• Community and solidarity

The spirit of sport is expressed in how we play true. Teqball embodies these values – we believe in a clean and fair field of play, and doping stands in direct contradiction to what Teqball represents.

Our goal is to empower all Teqers to stay on top of their game – not just athletes, but coaches, administrators, medical personnel and all other members of the athlete entourage. We encourage everyone to take the time to review this section – get informed, get empowered!

Learn more about anti-doping here.




Lesson 3/8 - Club Development Programme


FITEQ provides opportunity for all sports entities and individuals to establish their own teqball clubs. For this, there are specific funds from FITEQ through the National Federations.

Learn more about the Club Development Programme here.




Lesson 4 - Social Media Policy


During FITEQ-organised events (competitions, seminars, training camps, etc.), FITEQ representatives have to follow the following guidelines regarding social media posts and activities. Be yourself and speak in the first person. In the meantime, always pay attention to the fact that you relate to FITEQ and the local National Federation. You are personally responsible for every social media post, interview, internal and external communication you are involved in. If you are involved in an inappropriate social media post, communication, etc., you must immediately report it to your supervisor at FITEQ. Therefore, always pay attention to the changing privacy policies on social media sites. Any third-party sponsorship or advice must be communicated with FITEQ. DOs:
●Respect the privacy of other human beings and your social media audience! ●Get your social media account verified on every platform wherever it is possible to eliminate any confusion! ●Avoid any negative dialogues in all instances! ●Always keep in mind that everything you write might or will be read by fans, referees, team officials, organisers and anybody else! ●Keep in mind that photos, videos and posts uploaded to a social media site might be downloaded and stored by a third party secretly! ●Use the official hashtags of the sport of teqball: #Teqball, #WorldIsCurved ●Tag the appropriate teqball (or FITEQ) social media page!
DONTs:
●Do not discuss any information provided during a teqball-related event! This includes information about teams, players, schedules, tactics, style of plays, decisions, security details or any other information. If you are unsure, do not post it! ●Do not post information that has not yet been announced officially on the internet by FITEQ or the National Federations. Example: “Can’t wait for the next event in Switzerland.” This might be particularly important when FITEQ may have obligations to media or sponsors for exclusive or priority information sharing. ●Do not post photos, videos or other material that might portray anybody (staff members, audience, officials, etc.) in a poor light, or that might reveal confidential information. This also refers to tagging locations (accommodation, venues, restaurants, etc.) and other people. Example: “The City Centre Restaurant under our hotel is amazing.” ●Do not post teqball-related photos where alcohol, drugs or any kind of crime/violence might be involved! ●Do not give advice or make comments on matches, team officials, referees, organisers, administration, rules, etc.! ●Do not give interviews (video, written, etc…) unless requested/permitted by the FITEQ supervisor! ●When unsure about a post, do not post it!
Benefits of social media for the FITEQ representatives:
●Immediate and useful information to the world in the form of photos, videos and writings
●Allow people to stay in the loop of the happenings
●Educate people through social media
●Engaging more people for participation in any event
●No geographical borders
●Other noble causes Risks of social media for the FITEQ representatives:
●Sharing private information unintentionally
●Risk of impersonation
●Misleading information, communication
●Risk of misinterpretation




TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE - General Topics


In the following link, you can test your knowledge. Test type: mock test Attempts: 2 attempts allowed Time limit: 15 minutes Questions: 12 questions Pass mark: 85%





Refereeing Topics

Lesson 1 - Appointment


FITEQ reserves the right to appoint or invite referees to officiate or participate in any Teqball Event. Appointments made by FITEQ are based on the referee’s attitude and performance during competitions and courses, no other factors are taken into consideration. National Federations may nominate referees for appointment by FITEQ, to officiate at international events. Appointments will be officially communicated by e-mail to the referee’s respective National Federation. Where no National Federation or Associated Partner is existing, the email will be sent to the referees themselves. The appointment must be confirmed by the referee via email within five business days. A referee who is unable to accept an appointment must notify FITEQ by email. A service agreement shall be signed by all confirmed referees. If a referee does not confirm their appointment within 5 business days, they may be replaced by without further notification by FITEQ.


AVAILABILITY


After officially confirmed the availability, the referee must guarantee their availability for the whole duration of the Event, including the travelling dates.

COSTS AND DAILY ALLOWANCES

Travel expenses (including flights, airport transfers, and local transportation) and accommodation with full board, shall be covered by FITEQ, for all events where the referee is invited to work by FITEQ directly.

Travel insurance shall be covered by the referee. Any visa fees incurred will be reimbursed.




Lesson 2 - Insurance


All referees must be insured against the following risks during the whole period of travel (starting from the first official travel day and ending upon their return home):

  • Medical assistance
  • Baggage delay, damage, and theft
  • Flight cancellation or delay of more than 4 hours
  • Legal assistance
  • Personal assistance
  • Travel assistance

It is recommended that referees bring a copy of their certificate of insurance to the event. Because of any possible emergencies, the referee should bring the Insurance Sheet to the event printed out.

If a referee extends their stay or continues their travel somewhere else other than returning home, then the obligatory insurance may expire on the last day of the competition. FITEQ bears no responsibilities for any incidents that occur during a referee’s travel.




Lesson 3 - The Philosophy of Refereeing in Teqball


The Official Rules and Regulations of Teqball is the referees’ most useful resource. The purpose of the rules is to administer the game and prevent players from gaining an unfair advantage over their opponent as the result of an illegal action. All referees must have an in-depth knowledge of the rules and be able to apply them appropriately on every occasion. All referees must apply the rules fairly and professionally.

All Team Officials shall accept official interpretations of the rules. If any governance is needed, it is always the referee’s responsibility to guide the Team Officials professionally. The referee’s first concern shall be to maintain unshakeable and absolute integrity of the referee function, especially when making difficult decisions under pressure.

A referee must not call faults that are not there just because they think they need to make decisions and control the game through these. The same applies if an incorrect decision is made (a wrong call or a call not made): the referee must not intentionally compensate a mistake with another mistake. The fairness of the referee’s decision is based on the overall view of the situation and upon the experience of similar occurrences.

The referees must never be swayed by appeals from the players, team officials or people outside the playing area. If players or the team officials complain excessively about the referees’ decision(s), the Main Referee must issue a verbal warning with a high level of confidence and calmness. referees are responsible for professionally guiding Team Officials when clarification is required.

referees shall treat every teqball match as being of equal importance to the highest-level matches. Therefore, referees must always behave professionally respecting and emphasising the values of the sport of teqball. They must always adopt a professional attitude when representing the sport of teqball.

PREPARATION

Referees must be fully prepared mentally, technically, and physically to officiate any match that they have been appointed to. In any case, it may not happen, FITEQ reserves the right to take measures depending on the circumstances.

The Main Referee is required for every teqball match. An Assistant Referee is optional, but generally needed and/or preferred.

ARRIVAL TO THE VENUE

Referees must arrive at the venue one hour before the beginning of the match they are officiating. Prepare mentally and physically to their tasks during the match(es). If a referee fails to arrive at least 30 minutes before the game, they will be substituted by the Reserve Referee.

ARRIVAL TO THE COURT

All referees must be at the playing area 30 minutes before the game starts in full uniform and with the appropriate equipment is provided.

Upon arrival referees must check the following before the match can start:

  • Personal equipment (watch, clothing, coin)

  • The athletes’ equipment (jewellery is strictly prohibited and must be removed)

  • The ball (pressure, surface, etc.)

  • The Teq table

  • The Teqball court

  • Any item or condition that could impact the safety of athletes or officials

Once all necessary checks are completed, referees must call the athletes together and do the following:

Welcome, introduce and emphasise that fair play and respect are essential components of Teqball.

Example speech: “Good Evening/Afternoon/Morning Ladies and/or Gentlemen! Welcome to today’s teqball match! My name is <insert> and my assistant will be ZX! We have been assigned to conduct this teqball match. Please always keep the rules and fair play in mind and always try to act accordingly! If you have any questions or comments during the game, please make them respectfully as me and my colleague will respect you, too! Have a good game!”</insert>

Make a quick equipment check again.

Start the coin-toss process!

APPROACH TO THE PLAYERS

The official shall ensure that the player has a reasonable opportunity to perform to the best of their ability, within the limits of the rules. The official’s main concern shall be the player’s safety. Any situation affecting this prime consideration of competition shall be avoided.

During the game, the official must take all reasonable steps to maintain a spirit of healthy competition. Accordingly, they:

  • Shall not permit intimidation of a player or team staff, either by word or action.

  • Shall not tolerate unacceptable conduct to officials, other players or spectators.

  • Shall avoid pointless discussions with players in a match situation; only team captains are authorized to address them. In the heat of play, the official shall take every effort to retain a presence of mind enabling them to officiate with complete objectivity and the dignity required by their position.

When working in tournaments involving novice players, the official shall accept the educational role expected of them and shall adapt their conduct to this particular aspect of the competition.

Away from the immediate environment of play, the official shall:

  • Be open to discussion and contact with players

  • Avoid any conduct suggesting self-importance, arrogance or sarcasm

  • Show themselves receptive to constructive criticism

  • Demonstrate due respect and consideration for different points of view and judgments

Outside the court, the official shall conduct themselves in such a way that their relationship with players does not prejudice their subsequent work or impartiality.

APPROACH TO THE COACHES

The official’s conduct toward the coach and any other team staff shall be governed by respect and courtesy. In a match situation, the official shall intervene as required in order to facilitate the work of coaches within the framework of regular procedures and the limitations of the rules.

The official shall prohibit any unacceptable conduct by team staff in their relations with officials, players, other team staff and spectators, and shall take action against any offence of this nature in accordance with the procedures provided in the rules.

Outside the match context, the official shall adopt an attitude conducive to positive dialogue and calm communication with team staff. The referee will make a special effort to listen to constructive criticism, having due regard to the uninhibited spirit of competition prevailing in these circumstances, and shall demonstrate the necessary sense of proportion if subjected to personal abuse that may result from such a situation.

APPROACH TO OTHER OFFICIALS

Every official, in their relations with one or more other officials, shall consciously strive to create and/or cooperate in creating a friendly or at least pleasant working atmosphere governed by mutual respect, understanding, cordiality and mutual encouragement.

In performing their work, the members of a team of referees coming together to officiate in a match shall strive to create this working atmosphere conducive to confidence, cooperation and communication, with a view to optimal performance as a group. The Main Referee of a match shall take the action required to involve each member of the team of referees in the action and shall thank them at the end of the match.

When a situation is difficult for a referee to resolve and they are uncertain about their proposed solution, the official in question shall consult with the other officials to find a clearer solution.

The official shall accept the duties attached to the specific role they are assigned to and shall not attempt to transfer their responsibilities to other officials. Experienced referees shall concern themselves with the development of less experienced referees by tactfully and advising them as to how they may improve.

All officials shall refrain from public discussion of decisions of other officials and shall always avoid criticising or judging them impulsively, but particularly when wearing an official’s uniform.

The official shall make the necessary efforts to reach a high standard of competence, encourage an atmosphere conducive to a conscientious performance of their duties, and contribute to preventing inadequate refereeing standards. The official shall accordingly:

  • Not perform any refereeing duties under false pretences concerning their skills and qualifications.

  • Not accept any gift, benefit or favour that might subvert or appear to influence their subsequent decisions or actions in the performance of their duties.

Every referee shall perform their duties at acceptable physical and functional levels. This includes the requirements that they:

  • Take the necessary action to maintain physical condition sufficient to meet the requirements of their duties.

  • Avoid performing duties if their faculties are significantly impaired by illness.

  • Rest sufficiently to be able to perform adequately.

  • Refrain from officiating while under the influence of drugs or alcohol.

When performing their duties, the official shall adopt an assured, dignified demeanour, in the knowledge that their actions as a referee should convey the sense of decorum inherent in the rules of the procedures.

Requirements concerning the performance of the referee’s duties:

  • Each official shall seek to gradually acquire relevant experience and improve their skills – without attempting to progress too quickly – by studying the rules, confirming any doubtful interpretation with the competent authority, and by participating in training courses available to them, in a spirit of continuous learning.




Lesson 4 - Social Media Policy for Referees


During FITEQ-organised events (competitions, seminars, training camps, etc.), referees are prohibited from participating in social media (posting, writing, tweeting, etc.). This period starts from the arrival to the venue and ends after leaving from the venue. Be yourself and speak in the first person. In the meantime, always pay attention to the fact that you relate to FITEQ and the local National Federation.

You are personally responsible for every social media post, interview, internal and external communication you are involved in. If you are involved in an inappropriate social media post, communication, etc., you must immediately report it to the supervisor of the referees. Therefore, always pay attention to the changing privacy policies on social media sites. Any third-party sponsorship or advice must be communicated with FITEQ.

DOs:

  • Respect the privacy of other referees, other human beings and your social media audience!
  • Get your social media account verified on every platform wherever it is possible to eliminate any confusion!
  • Avoid any negative dialogues in all instances!
  • Always keep in mind that everything you write might or will be read by fans, referees, team officials, organisers and anybody else!
  • Keep in mind that photos, videos and posts uploaded to a social media site might be downloaded and stored by a third party secretly!
  • Use the official hashtags of the sport of teqball: #Teqball, #WorldIsCurved, #Teq, #JoinTheTeqers
  • Tag the appropriate teqball or FITEQ social media page!

DONTs:

  • Do not discuss any information provided during a teqball-related event! This includes information about teams, players, schedules, tactics, style of plays, decisions, security details or any other information. If the referee is unsure, then they must ask the supervisor of the referees for that event.
  • Do not post information that has not yet been announced officially on the internet by FITEQ or the National Federations. Example: “Can’t wait for the next event in Switzerland.” This might be particularly important when FITEQ may have obligations to media or sponsors for exclusive or priority information sharing.
  • Do not post photos, videos or other material that might portray anybody (staff members, audience, officials, etc.) in a poor light, or that might reveal confidential information. This also refers to tagging locations (accommodation, venues, restaurants, etc.) and other people. Example: “The City Centre Restaurant under our hotel is amazing.”
  • Do not post teqball-related photos where alcohol, drugs or any kind of crime/violence might be involved!
  • Do not give advice or make comments on matches, team officials, referees, organisers, administration, rules, etc.!
  • Do not give interviews (video, written, etc…) unless requested/permitted by the supervisor!
  • When unsure about a post, do not post it!

Benefits of social media for the referees:

  • Immediate and useful information to the world in the form of photos, videos and writings
  • Allow people to stay in the loop of the happenings
  • Educate people through social media
  • Engaging more people for participation in any event
  • No geographical borders
  • Other noble causes
  • Risks of social media for the referees:
  • Sharing private information unintentionally
  • Risk of impersonation
  • Misleading information, communication
  • Risk of misinterpretation




Lesson 5 - Responsibilities of the Referees


COMMUNICATION WITH A THIRD PARTY:

Under no circumstances are the Referees allowed to communicate with a third party, such as spectators or other visitors to the competition. If any harassment or abuse is being accused to the Referees, the ongoing match must be suspended immediately and without any individual or team action made, it should be reported to the Competition Manager personally.

INTERNAL DISCUSSION BETWEEN REFEREES:

Referees must not discuss one another’s performance and must not make any comments on the decisions, positioning, communication, outfit, etc. of their colleagues. Critiques and recommendations must always be made to the Chief Referee of the competition, who will decide the appropriate way to inform the parties.

EXTERNAL DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THE REFEREES:

Internal discussions are always confidential. Providing information to a third party in any way is an offence committed against the Referee Team and the Referee might be sanctioned by the Chief Referee or the Head of referees.

POWERS AND DUTIES:

The Main Referee has the responsibility to keep the match flowing in the correct order. They may warn a player or a team official, suspend or terminate a match if they think the circumstances are inadequate.

The Main Referee might suspend or abandon the match in the following situations:

  • If the floodlights or other playing conditions (e.g. the sports equipment, flooring or audience behaviour) are inadequate

  • If an object is thrown at the referees from inside or outside the playing area

  • If somebody behaves dangerously towards the referees or the players

  • If somebody enters the playing area without the Main Referee’s permission

  • If the person can be clearly identified by the referees and linked to a team’s staff, then the team captain (or player in singles) must be warned verbally. If the person does not leave the playing area, the match might be terminated

  • If the person cannot be clearly identified by the referees or linked to an athlete or team’s staff, then the Main Referee might suspend the match until the person is removed. The exact time to continue the match is decided by the Chief Referee

  • If the staff member or the person is a registered member of the team staff (team official, coach), then the person must be warned by the Main Referee. In case of not leaving the playing area after the warning, the Main Referee may terminate the match

The Main Referee must instantly stop the rally (and later restart it from the first service) in the following situations:

  • Another ball, an object or animal enters the playing area during the match

  • In case of a serious injury

The Main Referee may restart the match once all circumstances and conditions are appropriate to do so. The Main Referee must, in all cases, report any unusual situation to the Chief Referee after the match is over. The Main Referee has the authority to warn or dismiss the players or team officials during breaks and time-outs if required.

LOYALTY AND CONFIDENTIALITY

Nowadays having a corporate code of conduct that provides guidance is the best way to control and make sure how teqball referees use and act on various public channels. A social media policy for referees outlines the most important points to follow in order to:

  • Avoid legal troubles and security risks

  • Empower referees to share teqball-related experiences

  • Create consistency across channels

Referees shall always represent FITEQ’s best interests and must refrain from any action, which could be of an unsporting manner. Referees must treat all information received during any teqball-related event confidential.

COMMUNICATION

Communication between the two referees must be very discreet and the Assistant Referee should only use moderate hand signals to help the Main Referee. As such, eye-contact is important for good communication between the referees. As the Main Referee is responsible for finalising the calls, they will usually look at the Assistant Referee in order to verify a call’s legitimacy before each decision.

COLLECTIVE DECISION:

As the Main Referee and Assistant Referee are an officiating team, they need to share a collective mindset. For the player, it is easier to accept a collective decision (even if they think it is a wrong call) than to accept the Main Referee’s call. When there is a difference of opinion between the Main and the Assistant Referee, they may propose to come together after the rally and discuss what they have seen from their angles.

CLEAR CALLS:

When it comes to clear and -possibly- easy calls, the Main Referee’s may check it with the Assistant Referee if the call can stand or not. The Assistant Referee can simply nod if they agree with the Main Referee. If there anything is unclear for the Main Referee, they should invite the Assistant Referee closer to the table and discuss the decision over it.

CONTROVERSIAL DECISIONS:

Whenever there is a situation in which the two referees are of a different opinion, it is always better to have a close, short discussion before making the final call. The following situations can happen:

  • The Main Referee spotted a fault, but the Assistant Referee did not see it: The Main Referee makes the call if they are sure about it

  • The Main Referee spotted a fault, but the Assistant Referee saw something else: before making the call, it is better to have a brief discussion personally at the Teqball table

  • The Main Referee did not spot a fault, but the Assistant Referee is certain they did: The Assistant Referee signals to the Main Referee by raising one hand in an almost discreet manner so as not to disturb the players. After this, the Main Referee should make the call after agreement with the Assistant Referee. (Note: usually it is obvious as to what the Assistant Referee has signalled. If not, then the two referees should consult briefly)

  • The Main Referee did not spot a fault nor did the Assistant Referee: quick eye contact between the two, no signs of a fault, the game can go on

Tasks allocated before the game shall be consistent during the game and discreet. Discreet communication includes the following:

  • Nodding

  • Raising one hand almost invisible to the players

  • Mouth movement

  • Pointing at a side with mouth movement

As both referees know the official rules and regulations of teqball, they should easily recognise the fault type signalled by the partner referee.

Referees allocate the tasks between themselves, during a pre-match meeting. For example, the Main Referee is paying attention to everything but less so to those areas that are covered by the Assistant Referee, which are: foot fault of the serving player at the service, repeated touch at one end (referees can agree as to which end), table touch, and illegal return. Both referees must pay attention to illegal attacks. The previously mentioned communication technique should be used before making a final decision. It is recommended that both referees monitor all aspects of the game, since often errors may only be visible to one referee.




Lesson 9 - Body Parts


In the sport of teqball the following body parts are defined:

Head: the upper part of the body from above the top of the neck.

Left shoulder: the upper joint of each arm and the part of the body between this and the neck.

Right shoulder: the upper joint of each arm and the part of the body between this and the neck.

Back: the rear surface of the body from the shoulders to the hips, including the rear part of the neck and the buttocks as well.

Chest: the front surface of the body from the shoulders to the hips, including the front part of the neck as well.

Left upper leg: the part of the body between the hips and the middle of the knee, excluding the buttocks.

Right upper leg: the part of the body between the hips and the middle of the knee, excluding the buttocks.

Left foot: the part of the body below the middle of the knee; this means that the inside of the foot is the same body part as the outside of the foot.

Right foot: the part of the body below the middle of the knee; this means that the inside of the foot is the same body part as the outside of the foot.

Touches made exactly with the border of two different body parts are considered according to the intention of the move.

IMPORTANT NOTES

Knees

In teqball, many players use their knees to control, set or return the ball. The knee is almost always below the playing surface (Teq table), therefore players need to hit the ball upwards if they want to control, set or return the ball with this body part. To strike the ball upwards, the players need to use the harder upper part of the knee to physically execute this ball movement. For this reason, in teqball, the knees are considered to be the part of the upper legs unless there is a clear view of the touch that was the lower part of the knee. Only in this situation is the knee either part of the right or left foot.

Neck

The neck is rarely used body part, use of which occurs mostly unintentionally and is hard to categorise since it is not a separate body part in the game of teqball. The categorisation of a touch by the neck should be made by taking into consideration the intention of the move. In the case of a chest or back touch, the touch should be considered according to the intention. If the player eventually touches the ball with their neck, the touch should be considered either a chest or back touch according to the player’s intention.

Hands and arms

In teqball hands and arms are not allowed to be used. Players can only use the palm of their hands before undertaking the service. Whenever a referee spots the ball touching a hand or an arm, they should immediately stop the match and score a point to the opposing player/team.

Using the body parts

In teqball, it is prohibited to touch the ball with the same body part (double touch) consecutively, without another touch or bounce occurring first. In teqball, it is prohibited to return the ball with the same body part (as previously defined) two times consecutively. The service does not constitute a touch or a return.

Holding the ball

According to the rules and regulations of teqball, players are not allowed to hold the ball on or in-between two body parts at all. If a referee sees this happening, they should immediately stop the match and award a point to the opposing player or team.

Decision

It is the referee’s responsibility and authority to decide about the touching body parts. The referees must make the best possible and the fairest decision evaluating the situation from the angle, which they observed it from.




Lesson 7 - Coin Toss


The coin toss is conducted by the Main Referee straight before the match. This decides the serving player, the receiver, and the sides.

THE COIN

For the coin toss process, referees should use the official FITEQ coin.

In case a FITEQ coin is not available, a regular coin must be carried by the Main Referee for use during the coin toss. It must have a minimum diameter of 25mm [appropriate examples: 2 € (EUR) / 1 $ (USD) / 1 ¥ (CNY) coin] and a maximum of 35mm. The background of the coin must be visible to the players and for the broadcast as well (if applicable).

THE PROCESS

The home player chooses one side of the FITEQ coin (or heads or tails)

The winner of the coin toss chooses: sides; or serving and receiving team; and the other captain chooses the other one.

The receiving team selects the receiver first, then the serving team selects the server.




Lesson 8 - Sports Equipment


Teq table: The officially approved equipment to play the sport of teqball on.

Net: The transparent PMMA material that divides the teqball table into two equal halves.

Playing surface: The target area on the table of two equal halves on which the ball must bounce after the return.

Teqball ball: The officially approved ball to play teqball with.

Service line: The line marked two metres from the end of the Teq table indicating the area from where the service shall be undertaken.

Scoreboard: The board that is used by the Assistant Referee as a display of the score.

THE TEQ TABLE

Length: 3,000mm (horizontal).

Width: 1,500mm (without the net).

Width: 1,700mm (including the net).

Height: 900mm (including the net).

The curvature of the playing surface of the Teq table is determined by the distance of the highest and lowest points of the surface, and by the horizontal distance from the lowest (farthest) point of the Teq table to the height of the net. The highest point of the playing surface – as measured from the ground – is 760mm, while the lowest point is 565mm.

The horizontal distance between the lowest part of the Teq table and the net is 1,490mm.

The material of the Teq table’s playing surface is HPL (High-Pressure Laminate), composed of a resin impregnated kraft paper, a decorative paper and a clear melamine overlay. These sheets are bonded at high pressures and temperatures.

THE SPECIFICATION OF THE NET

Width: 1,700mm.

Thickness: 20mm.

Height: 140mm (measured from the surface of the Teq table).

The net must be permanently fixed to the Teq table and must be made from PMMA (plexi), a transparent thermoplastic, lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.

These specifications describe the Teq One table, which is one of the three types of tables certified by FITEQ:

Teq One.

Teq Smart.

Teq Lite.

THE TEQBALL COURT

Perimeter

The court must be rectangular and marked with a perimeter with a minimum height of 500mm and a maximum height of 1,000mm. The perimeters belong to the areas of which they are boundaries. The Teq table is in the exact middle of the court with the net being parallel to the shorter sides’ perimeters. During competitions, the colour of the Teq table, the colour of the floor, the colour of the perimeter and the colour of the ball must all be different.

Halfway line

The halfway line must be in the middle of the teqball court, dividing it into two equal halves (see illustration). The halfway line must be indicated by a clearly visible stripe, with a minimum thickness of 20mm and a maximum thickness of 50mm, in a colour different from that of the flooring.

Service line

The service line must be parallel to the net and 3.5 metres away from the middle of the table. Therefore, it is 2 metres away from the reflection of the end of the table on the ground. The thickness of the service line must be a minimum of 20mm and a maximum of 50mm, in a colour different from that of the flooring.

Dimensions

The official competition size of a teqball court is 12 metres wide by 16 metres long by 7 metres high. The sides parallel to the net must be a minimum of 12 metres long; the other two sides must be a minimum of 16 metres long. Referees are deemed as part of the teqball court.

THE BALL

Qualities and measurements of the ball:

  • Spherical

  • Made of leather or another suitable material and has a latex bladder with a butyl valve

  • Has a circumference of not less than 67cm and not more than 69cm (size 5 ball)

  • Weighs no more than 435g and no less than 420g at the start of the match

  • Has a pressure of between 0.3 and 0.5 atmospheres at sea level

Replacement of a defective ball:

If the ball bursts or becomes defective during a match, the game is stopped. The Main Referee takes possession of the defective ball and provides the players with a new one.

After the ball has been changed, the game continues from exactly where it was stopped, which means the score remains and the same service preceding the rally that was stopped must be repeated. Where the rally was started with a second service attempt, the player continues with their second service attempt after a 1-minute warm-up with the new ball.

GAMEPLAY

Coin-toss: The process conducted by the Main Referee straight before the match. This decides the serving player/team, the receiver and the sides.

End of the table: The furthest edge from the plexi of the playing surface, parallel to the plexi.

Side of the table: The longer edge of the table. Perpendicular to the plexi and the end of the table.

Singles: A match in which two players play against each other.

Doubles: A match in which teams of two players play against each other.

Service: A service is the first directed touch of the serving player to start a rally.

Serving player: The first player who begins the rally.

Receiving player: The first player who must touch the ball after the service is undertaken correctly.

Attacking: The process when a player/team is in possession of the ball with the intention of returning the ball to the opponent’s half.

Defending: The process when a player/team is not in possession of the ball and is (with the intention of) preparing for the returned ball.

Rally: A continuous period between the service and the end of the play.

Fault: A violation of the rules.

Point: End of the rally where one player/team could not return the ball by the rules. A result of a valid rally.

Repeated rally: A rally where no point is awarded.

Score: The record of the points awarded to the players/teams.

Set: A period that is played until the first side reaches 12 points. The final set must be won by at least two points.

Teqball match: Two players or two teams of two players playing against each other in teqball in a best-of-three set.

Time out: The 1-minute time period that is a brief interruption of the match requested by the players/captains.

Fair play: Fair play is a complex concept that comprises and embodies a number of fundamental values that are not only integral to the sport but relevant in everyday life.

Win: When a player/team reaches the required number of points in the required number of sets.

Defeat: A teqball match that is lost; opposite of a win.




Lesson 6 - Referee Roles


HEAD OF REFEREES

The Head of Referees is an honorary position.

CHIEF REFEREE

The Chief Referee is responsible for organising a pre-tournament briefing for all the referees. For each competition, a Chief Referee must be appointed. The Chief Referee is responsible for conducting the draw of the competitions, together with the Competition Manager. The Chief Referee appoints the referees to each table and decides on their roles. The Chief Referee has responsibility for verifying the eligibility of all involved participants (players, coaches, assistants, etc.) for the designated competition. The Chief Referee must be positioned near the ongoing matches and supervise them. The Chief Referee may decide about replacing a referee at any time.

The Chief Referee decides:

  • Whether the match should be suspended in the case of an emergency
  • Whether statutory warm-up time may be extended
  • On any question of interpretation of the rules or regulations, including the acceptability of clothing, playing equipment and playing conditions
  • Whether, and where, players may practise during an emergency suspension of the match
  • Whether taking disciplinary action for misbehaviour or other breaches of regulations is needed

If the Chief Referee is unable to fulfil their duties, their responsibilities should be transferred to an assigned replacement. The Chief Referee, or a responsible deputy appointed to exercise authority in their absence, shall always be present during the match.

The Chief Referee must have:

  • Appropriate clothing (see in The Official Dress Code for Teqball Referees)
  • A watch
  • Two coins
  • Two pens and a notepad

MAIN REFEREE

For each match, the Main Referee must be appointed. The Main Referee is responsible for the continuity of the game and the application of the rules and regulations. The Main Referee is responsible for checking the acceptability of the equipment and playing conditions and must report any deficiency to the Chief Referee. The Main Referee conducts the coin toss for the choice of serving, receiving and sides. The Main Referee must control the order of service, receiving and sides, and correct any errors therein. The Main Referee must decide each rally as a point or a repeated rally and call the score by the specified procedure. If the opponents are wearing similar garments to the home players, the Main Referee must instruct the guest player/team to change shirt/s.

The Main Referee must have:

  • Appropriate clothing (see in The Official Dress Code for Teqball Referees)
  • A watch
  • A coin

The Main Referee must position themselves in the imaginary line of the net and keep moving from there as the gameplay requires. They must make clear and confident decisions. The Main Referee must report to the Chief Referee immediately in the case of any violence or inappropriate behaviour during a match.

ASSISTANT REFEREE

The Assistant Referee’s task is to help the Main Referee with their discretely signed decisions on the previously discussed tasks. The Assistant Referee must decide if the execution of service is valid. The Assistant Referee is responsible for measuring the time of the warm-up and time outs.

The Assistant Referee must have:

  • Appropriate clothing (see in The Official Dress Code for Teqball Referees)
  • A watch
  • A coin

The Assistant Referee must position themselves in the imaginary line of the net, opposite the Main Referee. The Assistant Referee must sign to the Main Referee if they see something that is against the rules. The Assistant Referee must follow the results. The Assistant Referee is also responsible for leaving the teqball court clean and clear after the match has finished.

RESERVE REFEREE

The number of Reserve Referees varies between competitions. The responsibility of a Reserve Referee is to always be ready to come in either as a Main Referee or an Assistant Referee if required and requested by the Chief Referee.

The Reserve Referee must have:

  • Appropriate clothing (see in The Official Dress Code for Teqball Referees)
  • A watch
  • A coin

The Reserve Referee must position themselves near the teqball court. The Reserve Referee must be aware of the protocol and role of every referee. The Reserve Referee should help the Main Referee in any way needed, and also keep the teqball court clean. The Reserve Referee must not vocalise decisions when spectating a match. The Reserve Referee must report to the Chief Referee if anything unusual is observed.




Lesson 10 - Disciplinary Actions


Unsporting Conduct

Unsporting conduct occurs when a player makes any inappropriate verbal remark or non-verbal gesture to the opponent players, team officials, referees, spectators or any other stakeholders who are part of the competition.

If the Main Referee considers a player’s conduct to be unsporting, they may sanction the player according to the following three steps:

Verbal warning – for unsporting behaviour, the referee must issue a verbal warning to the player, without awarding a point, unless the innocent team winning the point. If the innocent team wins the point after unsporting conduct, the point must be awarded, and a verbal warning must be issued afterwards. The Main Referee may use their own words to explain the type of unsporting behaviour and then must warn the player that for the next similar action, a point will be awarded to the opponent player/team.

Point awarded to the opponent player/team – in teqball, referees do not use coloured cards. Where an unsporting behaviour takes place for a second time by the player/team or team official, the Main Referee must award a point to the opponent player/team and call out: “Second warning! Point to the opponent!” This step may be used several times if a player continues with unsporting behaviour.

Dismissal – in the case of an extreme offence or continuous unsporting behaviour, the Main Referee may dismiss a player by reporting them to the Competition Manager and/or the Chief Referee. The dismissal must be made by either the Competition Manager or the Chief Referee. After the dismissal, the player/team loses the match, but all previously earned points by the dismissed players shall remain valid.

A warning or penalty incurred by any member of a team shall apply to the whole team.

UNSPORTING CONDUCT EXAMPLES

Player(s) intentionally cheating – evading the rules.

Inappropriate verbal and non-verbal communication.

Communication with the opponent or the referee during a rally.

Making disturbing noise – players shouting in the direction of the opponent and disturbing them intentionally.

Attempting to intentionally deceive the referees.

Attempting to intentionally waste time.

Intentionally changing roles to deceive the referees.

Acting in a manner that shows a lack of respect for the sport.

Verbally distracting the opponent in between rallies.

Attempting to intentionally move the Teq table or the service line.

Deliberately using a trick to outplay the rules.

Celebrating in an inappropriate/offensive way, or removing the shirt, or covering the head with the shirt (after winning a point, set, match).

Dissenting by protesting the referees’ decision, either verbally or non-verbally in an immoderate manner.

The Main Referee must evaluate the specific situation and penalise accordingly. A point cannot be awarded against any team, without first issuing a verbal warning. The Assistant Referee may indicate any unsporting behaviour, after which the Main Referee shall issue a verbal warning to the player.

Before, during or straight after the match, any intentional physical contact with any referee leads to instant dismissal from the match.

The consequence of dismissal is that the dismissed player’s or team official’s behaviour will be reported to the Competition Manager and/or Chief Referee of the competition. The Competition Manager and the Chief Referee shall decide whether to disqualify the dismissed person from the competition.

If a player is disqualified from an event or competition for any reason, they shall automatically forfeit any associated title, medal, prize money or ranking points.

Cases of very serious misbehaviour shall be reported to the offender's association.

COACHES’ UNSPORTING BEHAVIOUR

The coach must be warned in the following situations:

Leaving the coaching area during the match. (If they leave, they are not allowed to return).

Intentional or unintentional disturbance of the match (including verbal communication).

Making verbal comments regarding the referees’ decisions.

Overdramatic or dangerous reactions to the referees’ decisions.

Inappropriate communication with the spectators or with any other stakeholders.

The coach must be dismissed in the following circumstances:

  • Racist and other offensive behaviour.
  • An inappropriate and dangerous act.

If a coach is dismissed, they must leave the coaching area. In this case, the match continues from the point where the Main Referee stopped the game.

If the coach refuses to leave the coaching area, the Main Referee can end the match with a score of 12-0 in each set won, in favour of the opponent team.

After the match, the Main Referee must report to the Competition Manager and the Chief Referee of the competition, who will then decide upon any further penalties. With further inappropriate behaviour, the coach may be suspended and sanctioned by FITEQ.

A warning or penalty incurred by any member of a team shall apply to the whole team.




Lesson 11 - Force Majeure - factual mistake by the referees


In teqball, each and every rally must end with the referee's decision as a point or a repeated rally. According to the rulebook, a rally must be repeated in three different cases: 7.1 EDGEBALL 7.2 NET + THREE BOUNCES 7.3 FORCE MAJEURE 7.3.1 Force majeure occurs when the referee stops the game during a valid rally. 7.3.2 The match can be stopped by the referee if the rally is disturbed by: 7.3.2.1 any person who is not an official player; 7.3.2.2 a ball other than the match one is played with; or 7.3.2.3 any event that may affect the outcome of the rally. 7.3.3 Where a force majeure occurs during service, only the interrupted service must be repeated. This means that if the force majeure occurs after a second service attempt, the serving players must repeat their second service attempt. First and foremost referees must make confident decisions after which they are expected to stick to their decisions. They must never allow players to change their decisions. However, in case of a factual mistake is made by the referee and the outcome of the rally is affected, referees may repeat the rally. Factual mistakes are the following: The rally is stopped unreasonably by the referee AND the referees (with the help of the Assistant Referee) realise their fault. Examples: Illegal attack - but a pass was made only Edgeball - but the players touch the ball Repeated return - but the first "return" was a service If a referee makes a call and realises that the game should not have been stopped. To avoid situations like this our best advice for referees is to take their time to make the decisions so no rally will get stopped unreasonably by the referees.




TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE - Refereeing Topics


In the following link, you can test your knowledge. Test type: mock test Attempts: 2 attempts allowed Time limit: 15 minutes Questions: 12 questions Pass mark: 85%





FINAL EXAM

FINAL EXAM


In the following link, you can undertake the final exam of the Level C + Test. Test type: Final exam Attempts: 1 attempt allowed Time limit: 30 minutes Questions: 30 questions Pass mark: 85% Certificate provided: Yes.





Instructions

Course Information


The FITEQ Referee Course Level C + is an additional online education course to FITEQ's referee education pathway. This course provides in-depth knowledge for teqball referees, and all prospective members of the teqball community. The Level C + course is not mandatory for further referee education, but is recommended. Participants learn about the history of teqball in general, about the most important events and programs of FITEQ and many different detailed refereeing topics, like the rules of the game, protocol and in-game situations. Please find some important details below: Course prerequisites: none, only registration on http://fiteq.org Participation: open for all Course price: free Learning time: ~2 hours (120 minutes) Final exam: 1 attempt, 30 questions, 30 minutes Passing grade: 85% Certificate: yes, officially recognised by FITEQ




Step-by-Step Guide


In order to successfully complete the FITEQ Coaching Course Level Intro +, the participants need to follow the steps as per below:

  1. Register on http://fiteq.org
  2. On this page, read the lessons in the General Topics category and watch the additional videos
  3. In the General Topics category, undertake the mock exam ("Test your knowledge")
  4. On this page, read the lessons in the Refereeing Topics category and watch the additional videos
  5. In the Refereeing Topics category, undertake the mock exam ("Test your knowledge")
  6. Summarise and study the materials once again
  7. On this page, in the FINAL EXAM category, undertake the final exam
  8. Receive your official certificate




Q&A


1. Can anyone participate the FITEQ Referee Course Level C +? Yes, the registration and participation is open for the public. The course is free of charge and provides an official certificate issued by FITEQ. 2. Is FITEQ Referee Course Level Intro mandatory for this education course? No, but it is recommended to start with the basics, therefore we strongly recommend to undertake the FITEQ Referee Course Level C at http://education.fiteq.org 3. After taking this course, what are the next steps as a certified teqball coach? FITEQ's Referee Education pathway officially starts with the Level Intro course (not with the Level C + course), therefore it is recommended to follow that pathway firstly. After completing the Level Intro certification, the Level 1 course is the next (then Level B and Level A). The Level B course is organised by the national governing body of the sport of teqball and para teqball which is the local National Teqball Federation. The local NF oganises the next level courses with the assistance of FITEQ. 4. I would like to deliver education courses as a presenter, officially representing teqball. What should I do? For the Presenters, FITEQ is working on a Train the Trainers certificate which authorises the participants to officially represent FITEQ during educational courses. For more details, please contact education@fiteq.org via email. 5. Are the courses available in multiple languages? Most of the courses are already available in many different languages, but FITEQ is working on the translation of all materials into multiple languages. 6. What if I don't pass the final exam? Officially, all participants have one attempt, but with an email written to education@fiteq.org, explaining the reason of failure, FITEQ may give another opportunity with a one calendar week difference.